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Article

Milk Authentication: Stable Isotope Composition of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Milks and Their Constituents

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
4
Center Agriculture Food Environment (C3A), University of Trento, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 4000; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174000
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 17 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopic Techniques for Food Science)
This paper summarises the isotopic characteristics, i.e., oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, of Slovenian milk and its major constituents: water, casein, and lactose. In parallel, the stable oxygen isotope ratios of cow, sheep, and goat’s milk were compared. Oxygen stable isotope ratios in milk water show seasonal variability and are also 18O enriched in relation to animal drinking water. The δ18Owater values were higher in sheep and goat’s milk when compared to cow milk, reflecting the isotopic composition of drinking water source and the effect of differences in the animal’s thermoregulatory physiologies. The relationship between δ18Omilk and δ18Olactose is an indication that even at lower amounts (>7%) of added water to milk can be determined. This procedure once validated on an international scale could become a reference method for the determination of milk adulteration with water. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; adulteration; water addition; oxygen stable isotopes; lactose milk; adulteration; water addition; oxygen stable isotopes; lactose
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamzić Gregorčič, S.; Potočnik, D.; Camin, F.; Ogrinc, N. Milk Authentication: Stable Isotope Composition of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Milks and Their Constituents. Molecules 2020, 25, 4000. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174000

AMA Style

Hamzić Gregorčič S, Potočnik D, Camin F, Ogrinc N. Milk Authentication: Stable Isotope Composition of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Milks and Their Constituents. Molecules. 2020; 25(17):4000. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamzić Gregorčič, Staša, Doris Potočnik, Federica Camin, and Nives Ogrinc. 2020. "Milk Authentication: Stable Isotope Composition of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Milks and Their Constituents" Molecules 25, no. 17: 4000. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174000

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