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Article

Fatty Acid Composition of Cosmetic Argan Oil: Provenience and Authenticity Criteria

1
Science and Research Centre Koper, Institute for Olive Culture, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
2
Centre National De L’énergie, Des Sciences Et Techniques Nucleaires, Rabat 10001, Morocco
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Kokotos
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4080; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184080
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 7 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopic Techniques for Food Science)
In this work, fatty-acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, in combination with chemometric tools, were applied as a determinant of purity (i.e., adulteration) and provenance (i.e., geographical origin) of cosmetic grade argan oil collected from different regions of Morocco in 2017. The fatty acid profiles obtained by gas chromatography (GC) showed that oleic acid (C18:1) is the most abundant fatty acid, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0). The content of trans-oleic and trans-linoleic isomers was between 0.02% and 0.03%, while trans-linolenic isomers were between 0.06% and 0.09%. Discriminant analysis (DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure—discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed to discriminate between argan oils from Essaouira, Taroudant, Tiznit, Chtouka-Aït Baha and Sidi Ifni. The correct classification rate was highest for argan oil from the Chtouka-Aït Baha province (90.0%) and the lowest for oils from the Sidi Ifni province (14.3%), with an overall correct classification rate of 51.6%. Pairwise comparison using OPLS-DA could predictably differentiate (≥0.92) between the geographical regions with the levels of stearic (C18:0) and arachidic (C20:0) fatty acids accounting for most of the variance. This study shows the feasibility of implementing authenticity criteria for argan oils by including limit values for trans-fatty acids and the ability to discern provenance using fatty acid profiling. View Full-Text
Keywords: Argan oil; fatty acids; geographical origin; Morocco Argan oil; fatty acids; geographical origin; Morocco
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miklavčič, M.B.; Taous, F.; Valenčič, V.; Elghali, T.; Podgornik, M.; Strojnik, L.; Ogrinc, N. Fatty Acid Composition of Cosmetic Argan Oil: Provenience and Authenticity Criteria. Molecules 2020, 25, 4080. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184080

AMA Style

Miklavčič MB, Taous F, Valenčič V, Elghali T, Podgornik M, Strojnik L, Ogrinc N. Fatty Acid Composition of Cosmetic Argan Oil: Provenience and Authenticity Criteria. Molecules. 2020; 25(18):4080. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184080

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miklavčič, Milena B., Fouad Taous, Vasilij Valenčič, Tibari Elghali, Maja Podgornik, Lidija Strojnik, and Nives Ogrinc. 2020. "Fatty Acid Composition of Cosmetic Argan Oil: Provenience and Authenticity Criteria" Molecules 25, no. 18: 4080. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184080

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