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Open AccessArticle

Quinolone and Organophosphorus Insecticide Residues in Bivalves and Their Associated Risks in Taiwan

1
Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung University, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 5 Fuxing Street., Guishan District, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, 1 Section, 542 Chung-Shan Road, Changhua 50008, Taiwan
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, 4 Section. 1 Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
4
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, 580 Xinmin Road, Chiayi 60054, Taiwan
5
College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, National Chiayi University, 580 Xinmin Road, Chiayi 60054, Taiwan
6
Ph.D. Program of Agriculture Science, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Manfroni, Tommaso Felicetti and Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3636; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163636
Received: 21 June 2020 / Revised: 5 August 2020 / Accepted: 8 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinolones: Chemistry and Biological Activities)
Bivalves, such as freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) and hard clams (Meretrix lusoria), are the most extensive and widely grown shellfish in land-based ponds in Taiwan. However, few studies have examined the contamination of bivalves by quinolone and organophosphorus insecticides. Thus, we adapted an established procedure to analyze 8 quinolones and 12 organophosphorus insecticides using liquid and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Surveys in Taiwan have not noted high residual levels of these chemicals in bivalve tissues. A total of 58 samples of freshwater or hard clams were obtained from Taiwanese aquafarms. We identified 0.03 mg/kg of enrofloxacin in one freshwater clam, 0.024 mg/kg of flumequine in one freshwater clam, 0.02 mg/kg of flumequine in one hard clam, 0.05 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos in one freshwater clam, 0.03 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos in one hard clam, and 0.02 mg/kg of trichlorfon in one hard clam. The results indicated that 5.17% of the samples had quinolone insecticide residues and 5.17% had organophosphorus residues. However, the estimated daily intake (EDI)/acceptable daily intake quotient (ADI) indicated no significant risk and no immediate health risk from the consumption of bivalves. These results provide a reference for the food-safety screening of veterinary drugs and pesticides in aquatic animals. Aquatic products should be frequently screened for residues of prohibited chemicals to safeguard human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: quinolone; organophosphorus pesticide; residues; bivalves; risk assessment quinolone; organophosphorus pesticide; residues; bivalves; risk assessment
MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, C.-F.; Chen, C.-H.; Wu, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-S.; Su, Y.-C.; Wu, C.-F.; Tsai, H.-P.; Fan, P.-S.; Yeh, C.-H.; Yang, W.-C.; Chang, G.-R. Quinolone and Organophosphorus Insecticide Residues in Bivalves and Their Associated Risks in Taiwan. Molecules 2020, 25, 3636. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163636

AMA Style

Wu C-F, Chen C-H, Wu C-Y, Lin C-S, Su Y-C, Wu C-F, Tsai H-P, Fan P-S, Yeh C-H, Yang W-C, Chang G-R. Quinolone and Organophosphorus Insecticide Residues in Bivalves and Their Associated Risks in Taiwan. Molecules. 2020; 25(16):3636. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163636

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Ching-Feng; Chen, Ching-Hung; Wu, Ching-Yang; Lin, Chen-Si; Su, Yao-Chi; Wu, Ching-Fen; Tsai, Hsiao-Pei; Fan, Pei-Shan; Yeh, Chang-Hui; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Geng-Ruei. 2020. "Quinolone and Organophosphorus Insecticide Residues in Bivalves and Their Associated Risks in Taiwan" Molecules 25, no. 16: 3636. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163636

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