Next Article in Journal
Potential Therapeutic Targeting of Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Priming
Previous Article in Journal
Phytochemical Analysis, Network Pharmacology and in Silico Investigations on Anacamptis pyramidalis Tuber Extracts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antiadipogenic Effects of Mixtures of Cornus officinalis and Ribes fasciculatum Extracts on 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice
Open AccessArticle

Nutrient and Sensory Metabolites Profiling of Averrhoa Carambola L. (Starfruit) in the Context of Its Origin and Ripening Stage by GC/MS and Chemometric Analysis

1
Chemistry of Tanning Materials and Leather Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
2
Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Department Bioorganic Chemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4
Laboratory of Chromatography, Institute of Advanced Horticulture Research of Transylvania, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
5
Department of Food Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
6
Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
7
Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini St., P.B. 11562 Cairo, Egypt
8
Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences & Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eugenio Aprea
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2423; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102423
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 17 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
Averrhoa carambola L. is a tropical tree with edible fruit that grows at different climatic conditions. Despite its nutritive value and reported health benefits, it is a controversial fruit owing to its rich oxalate content. The present study aimed at investigating aroma and nutrient primary metabolites distribution in A. carambola fruits grown in Indonesia, Malaysia (its endemic origin) versus Egypt, and at different ripening stages. Two techniques were employed to assess volatile and non-volatile metabolites including headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) joined with gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS post silylation, respectively. Twenty-four volatiles were detected, with esters amounting for the major class of volatiles in Egyptian fruit at ca. 66%, with methyl caproate as the major component, distinguishing it from other origins. In contrast, aldehydes predominated tropically grown fruits with the ether myristicin found exclusively in these. Primary metabolites profiling led to the identification of 117 metabolites viz. sugars, polyols and organic acids. Fructose (38–48%) and glucose (21–25%) predominated sugar compositions in ripe fruits, whereas sorbitol was the major sugar alcohol (2.4–10.5%) in ripe fruits as well. Oxalic acid, an anti-nutrient with potential health risks, was the major organic acid detected in all the studied fruits (1.7–2.7%), except the Malaysian one (0.07%). It increases upon fruit ripening, including considerable amounts of volatile oxalate esters detected via SPME, and which must not be omitted in total oxalate determinations for safety assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary metabolites; A. Carambola L.; Oxalidaceae; GC-MS; SPME; volatiles; diabetes type-2 primary metabolites; A. Carambola L.; Oxalidaceae; GC-MS; SPME; volatiles; diabetes type-2
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ramadan, N.S.; Wessjohann, L.A.; Mocan, A.; C Vodnar, D.; H. El-Sayed, N.; A. El-Toumy, S.; Abdou Mohamed, D.; Abdel Aziz, Z.; Ehrlich, A.; A. Farag, M. Nutrient and Sensory Metabolites Profiling of Averrhoa Carambola L. (Starfruit) in the Context of Its Origin and Ripening Stage by GC/MS and Chemometric Analysis. Molecules 2020, 25, 2423.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop