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Open AccessArticle

Aspalathin-Rich Green Rooibos Extract Lowers LDL-Cholesterol and Oxidative Status in High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Vervet Monkeys

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Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, DiSVA-Biochemistry, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
2
Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform (BRIP), South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
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Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
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Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
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Department of Clinical Dental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Plant Bioactives Group, Post-Harvest and Agro-Processing Technologies, Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
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Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091713
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds for Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes-II)
Type 2 diabetic patients possess a two to four-fold-increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress associated with endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia are regarded as pro-atherogenic mechanisms of CVD. In this study, high-fat diet-induced diabetic and non-diabetic vervet monkeys were treated with 90 mg/kg of aspalathin-rich green rooibos extract (Afriplex GRT) for 28 days, followed by a 1-month wash-out period. Supplementation showed improvements in both the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) glycemic area under curve (AUC) and total cholesterol (due to a decrease of the low-density lipoprotein [LDL]) values in diabetics, while non-diabetic monkeys benefited from an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. No variation of plasma coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were found, suggesting that the LDL-lowering effect of Afriplex GRT could be related to its ability to modulate the mevalonate pathway differently from statins. Concerning the plasma oxidative status, a decrease in percentage of oxidized CoQ10 and circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) levels after supplementation was observed in diabetics. Finally, the direct correlation between the amount of oxidized LDL and total LDL concentration, and the inverse correlation between ox-LDL and plasma CoQ10 levels, detected in the diabetic monkeys highlighted the potential cardiovascular protective role of green rooibos extract. Taken together, these findings suggest that Afriplex GRT could counteract hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia, thereby lowering fundamental cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular risk factors; antidiabetic activity; aspalathin-enriched green rooibos extract; coenzyme Q10 type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular risk factors; antidiabetic activity; aspalathin-enriched green rooibos extract; coenzyme Q10
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Orlando, P.; Chellan, N.; Louw, J.; Tiano, L.; Cirilli, I.; Dludla, P.; Joubert, E.; Muller, C.J. Aspalathin-Rich Green Rooibos Extract Lowers LDL-Cholesterol and Oxidative Status in High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Vervet Monkeys. Molecules 2019, 24, 1713.

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