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Molecules 2019, 24(4), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040675

Multi-Organs-on-Chips: Towards Long-Term Biomedical Investigations

1
Institute of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
2
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Biochemical Technology (Huaqiao University), Xiamen 361021, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sungsu Park
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Paper-based Analytical Devices)
Full-Text   |   PDF [11839 KB, uploaded 14 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

With advantageous features such as minimizing the cost, time, and sample size requirements, organ-on-a-chip (OOC) systems have garnered enormous interest from researchers for their ability for real-time monitoring of physical parameters by mimicking the in vivo microenvironment and the precise responses of xenobiotics, i.e., drug efficacy and toxicity over conventional two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures, as well as animal models. Recent advancements of OOC systems have evidenced the fabrication of ‘multi-organ-on-chip’ (MOC) models, which connect separated organ chambers together to resemble an ideal pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for monitoring the complex interactions between multiple organs and the resultant dynamic responses of multiple organs to pharmaceutical compounds. Numerous varieties of MOC systems have been proposed, mainly focusing on the construction of these multi-organ models, while there are only few studies on how to realize continual, automated, and stable testing, which still remains a significant challenge in the development process of MOCs. Herein, this review emphasizes the recent advancements in realizing long-term testing of MOCs to promote their capability for real-time monitoring of multi-organ interactions and chronic cellular reactions more accurately and steadily over the available chip models. Efforts in this field are still ongoing for better performance in the assessment of preclinical attributes for a new chemical entity. Further, we give a brief overview on the various biomedical applications of long-term testing in MOCs, including several proposed applications and their potential utilization in the future. Finally, we summarize with perspectives. View Full-Text
Keywords: long-term testing; multi-organ-on-chip; microfluidic technology; biosensors; multisensor-integrated systems; drug testing; disease modeling long-term testing; multi-organ-on-chip; microfluidic technology; biosensors; multisensor-integrated systems; drug testing; disease modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhao, Y.; Kankala, R.K.; Wang, S.-B.; Chen, A.-Z. Multi-Organs-on-Chips: Towards Long-Term Biomedical Investigations. Molecules 2019, 24, 675.

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