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Open AccessArticle

Profiling Volatile Constituents of Homemade Preserved Foods Prepared in Early 1950s South Dakota (USA) Using Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Determination

1
Department of Chemistry, Dakota State University, Madison, SD 57042, USA
2
Department of Biology, Dakota State University, Madison, SD 57042, USA
3
School of Psychological Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
4
Department of Biology, Southern Oregon University, Ashland, OR 97520, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Academic Editors: Constantinos K. Zacharis and Paraskevas D. Tzanavaras
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040660
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid-Phase Microextraction)
An essential dimension of food tasting (i.e., flavor) is olfactory stimulation by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted therefrom. Here, we developed a novel analytical method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling in argon-filled gas sampling bags with direct gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination to profile the volatile constituents of 31 homemade preserves prepared in South Dakota (USA) during the period 1950–1953. Volatile profiles varied considerably, but generally decreased in detected compounds, complexity, and intensity over three successive 2-h SPME sampling periods. Volatile profiles were generally predominated by aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, and organic acids, with terpenoids constituting much of the pickled cucumber volatiles. Bisphenol-A (BPA) was also serendipitously detected and then quantified in 29 samples, at levels ranging from 3.4 to 19.2 μg/kg, within the range of levels known to induce endocrine disruption effects. Absence of BPA in two samples was attributed to their lids lacking plastic liners. As the timing of their preparation coincides with the beginning of BPA incorporation into consumer products, these jars may be some of the first BPA-containing products in the USA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to characterize BPA in and volatile profiles of rare historical foods with SPME. View Full-Text
Keywords: historical foods; preserves; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); bisphenol-A (BPA) historical foods; preserves; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); bisphenol-A (BPA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leinen, L.J.; Swenson, V.A.; Juntunen, H.L.; McKay, S.E.; O’Hanlon, S.M.; Videau, P.; Gaylor, M.O. Profiling Volatile Constituents of Homemade Preserved Foods Prepared in Early 1950s South Dakota (USA) Using Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Determination. Molecules 2019, 24, 660.

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