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Open AccessArticle

Optimizing Water-Based Extraction of Bioactive Principles of Hawthorn: From Experimental Laboratory Research to Homemade Preparations

1
IBMM, University of Montpellier, CNRS, ENSCM, 34059 Montpellier, France
2
Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
3
Analytical Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Muenchen, 85354 Freising, Germany
4
University of Avignon, INRA, UMR408, GREEN Extraction Team, F-84000 Avignon, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Miguel de la Guardia, Salvador Garrigues and Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4420; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234420
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Green to Democratic Analytical Chemistry)
Hawthorn (Crataegus) is used for its cardiotonic, hypotensive, vasodilative, sedative, antiatherosclerotic, and antihyperlipidemic properties. One of the main goals of this work was to find a well-defined optimized extraction protocol usable by each of us that would lead to repeatable, controlled, and quantified daily uptake of active components from hawthorn at a drinkable temperature (below 60 °C). A thorough investigation of the extraction mode in water (infusion, maceration, percolation, ultrasounds, microwaves) on the yield of extraction and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidin oligomers as well as on the Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) profiles of the extracted compounds was carried out. High-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was also implemented to discriminate the different samples and conditions of extraction. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of the extraction as well as the kinetics of extraction were studied, not only according to the part (flowers or leaves), the state (fresh or dried), and the granulometry of the dry plant, but also the stirring speed, the temperature, the extraction time, the volume of the container (cup, mug or bowl) and the use of infusion bags. View Full-Text
Keywords: hawthorn; water-based extraction; procyanidin; polyphenol; flavonoid; standardization; extraction mode; infusion; granulometry hawthorn; water-based extraction; procyanidin; polyphenol; flavonoid; standardization; extraction mode; infusion; granulometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ngoc, P.C.; Leclercq, L.; Rossi, J.-C.; Desvignes, I.; Hertzog, J.; Fabiano-Tixier, A.-S.; Chemat, F.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Cottet, H. Optimizing Water-Based Extraction of Bioactive Principles of Hawthorn: From Experimental Laboratory Research to Homemade Preparations. Molecules 2019, 24, 4420.

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