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Anti-Infective and Anti-Cancer Properties of the Annona Species: Their Ethnomedicinal Uses, Alkaloid Diversity, and Pharmacological Activities

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Drug Utilisation and Discovery Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jember, Jember 68121, Indonesia
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School of Chemistry & Molecular Bioscience and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2533, Australia
3
Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianni Sacchetti
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4419; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234419
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
Annona species have been a valuable source of anti-infective and anticancer agents. However, only limited evaluations of their alkaloids have been carried out. This review collates and evaluates the biological data from extracts and purified isolates for their anti-infective and anti-cancer activities. An isoquinoline backbone is a major structural alkaloid moiety of the Annona genus, and more than 83 alkaloids have been isolated from this genus alone. Crude extracts of Annona genus are reported with moderate activities against Plasmodium falciparum showing larvicidal activities. However, no pure compounds from the Annona genus were tested against the parasite. The methanol extract of Annona muricata showed apparent antimicrobial activities. The isolated alkaloids from this genus including liriodenine, anonaine, asimilobine showed sensitivity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Other alkaloids such as (+)-Xylopine and isocoreximine indicated significant anti-cancer activity against A549 and K-562 cell lines, respectively. This review revealed that the alkaloids from Annona genus are rich in structural diversity and pharmacological activities. Further exploration of this genus and their alkaloids has potential for developing novel anti-infective and anticancer drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Annona; alkaloid; anti-microbial; anti-malaria; anti-protozoa; anti-cancer Annona; alkaloid; anti-microbial; anti-malaria; anti-protozoa; anti-cancer
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Nugraha, A.S.; Damayanti, Y.D.; Wangchuk, P.; Keller, P.A. Anti-Infective and Anti-Cancer Properties of the Annona Species: Their Ethnomedicinal Uses, Alkaloid Diversity, and Pharmacological Activities. Molecules 2019, 24, 4419.

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