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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Storage Time and Temperature on the Toxicity, Endocrine Potential, and Migration of Epoxy Resin Precursors in Extracts of Food Packaging Materials

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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Naturowicza, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tomasz Tuzimski
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4396; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234396
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
The aim of the present study was to establish a standard methodology for the extraction of epoxy resin precursors from several types of food packages (cans, multi-layered composite material, and cups) with selected simulation media (distilled water, 5% ethanol, 3% dimethyl sulfoxide, 5% acetic acid, artificial saliva) at different extraction times and temperatures (factors). Biological analyses were conducted to determine the acute toxicity levels of the extracts (with Vibrio fischeri bacteria) and their endocrine potential (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts). In parallel, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to determine levels of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (mixture of isomers, BFDGE), ring novolac glycidyl ether (3-ring NOGE), and their derivatives. The variation induced by the different experimental factors was statistically evaluated with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Our findings demonstrate the value of using a holistic approach to best partition the effects contributing to the end points of these assessments, and offer further guidance for adopting such a methodology, thus being a broadly useful reference for understanding the phenomena related to the impacts of food packaging materials on quality for long- and short-term storage, while offering a general method for analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: packaging; modeling; extraction; ecotoxicity; instrumental studies; analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis packaging; modeling; extraction; ecotoxicity; instrumental studies; analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kudłak, B.; Jatkowska, N.; Kubica, P.; Yotova, G.; Tsakovski, S. Influence of Storage Time and Temperature on the Toxicity, Endocrine Potential, and Migration of Epoxy Resin Precursors in Extracts of Food Packaging Materials. Molecules 2019, 24, 4396.

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