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Effects of Propolis Extract and Propolis-Derived Compounds on Obesity and Diabetes: Knowledge from Cellular and Animal Models

Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501, Japan
Academic Editor: Lesław Juszczak
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4394; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234394
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bee Products: From Molecules to Human Health)
Propolis is a natural product resulting from the mixing of bee secretions with botanical exudates. Since propolis is rich in flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives, the application of propolis extracts has been tried in therapies against cancer, inflammation, and metabolic diseases. As metabolic diseases develop relatively slowly in patients, the therapeutic effects of propolis in humans should be evaluated over long periods of time. Moreover, several factors such as medical history, genetic inheritance, and living environment should be taken into consideration in human studies. Animal models, especially mice and rats, have some advantages, as genetic and microbiological variables can be controlled. On the other hand, cellular models allow the investigation of detailed molecular events evoked by propolis and derivative compounds. Taking advantage of animal and cellular models, accumulating evidence suggests that propolis extracts have therapeutic effects on obesity by controlling adipogenesis, adipokine secretion, food intake, and energy expenditure. Studies in animal and cellular models have also indicated that propolis modulates oxidative stress, the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and adipose tissue inflammation, all of which contribute to insulin resistance or defects in insulin secretion. Consequently, propolis treatment may mitigate diabetic complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, foot ulcers, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This review describes the beneficial effects of propolis on metabolic disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: propolis; bee product; metabolic disorder; type 2 diabetes; oxidative stress propolis; bee product; metabolic disorder; type 2 diabetes; oxidative stress
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Kitamura, H. Effects of Propolis Extract and Propolis-Derived Compounds on Obesity and Diabetes: Knowledge from Cellular and Animal Models. Molecules 2019, 24, 4394.

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