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Open AccessArticle

Chemometric Characterization of Strawberries and Blueberries according to Their Phenolic Profile: Combined Effect of Cultivar and Cultivation System

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Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
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Innovation Center, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Chemistry, P.O. Box 51, 11158 Belgrade, Serbia
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Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”—National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
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Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research-NIBIO Ullensvang, NO-5781 Lofthus, Norway
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Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 51, 11158 Belgrade, Serbia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4310; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234310
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 24 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Chemical characterizations of leaves and fruits that were obtained from organically and integrally produced strawberries (′Favette′, ′Alba′, and ′Clery′) and blueberries (′Bluecrop′, ′Duke′, and ′Nui′) from western Serbia were undertaken in this study. Phenolic analysis was done while using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap-Orbitrap hybrid mass analyzer, while total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and radical-scavenging activity (RSA) by spectrophotometry. In general, leaves and fruits from blueberry showed higher levels of TPC and TAC as compared to strawberry. These chemical traits were larger in organic grown fruits and larger in leaves than fruits. The most abundant phenolics in leaves and fruits of blueberry was 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, followed by quercetin 3-O-galactoside, while catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucosid were dominant in the leaves and fruits of strawberry. cis, trans-Abscisic acid was detected in all fruit samples, but not in leaves. Blueberries (both fruits and leaves) were separated from strawberries, but only organic blueberry fruits were distinguished from integrated fruits, according to principal component analysis. Quercetin, kaempferol, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were the most influential phenolic compounds for the separation. Much higher contents of TPC, RSA, TAC, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, and quercetin were found in fruits and TPC, RSA, catechin, p-hydroxybenzoicacid, p-coumaricacid, and ferulic acid in leaves in all three blueberry cultivars and the strawberry cultivar ′Clery′. These phenolic compounds are good sources of antioxidant compounds with potentially high beneficial effects on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fragaria x ananassa; Vaccinium corymbosum; organic production; integrated production; fruit; leaf; phenolic profiles; antohocyanin; principal component analysis Fragaria x ananassa; Vaccinium corymbosum; organic production; integrated production; fruit; leaf; phenolic profiles; antohocyanin; principal component analysis
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Fotirić Akšić, M.; Dabić Zagorac, D.; Sredojević, M.; Milivojević, J.; Gašić, U.; Meland, M.; Natić, M. Chemometric Characterization of Strawberries and Blueberries according to Their Phenolic Profile: Combined Effect of Cultivar and Cultivation System. Molecules 2019, 24, 4310.

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