Next Article in Journal
Bioactive Plant Compounds in Coffee Charcoal (Coffeae carbo) Extract Inhibit Cytokine Release from Activated Human THP-1 Macrophages
Next Article in Special Issue
SLC22A5 (OCTN2) Carnitine Transporter—Indispensable for Cell Metabolism, a Jekyll and Hyde of Human Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Solid-Phase Insertion of N-mercaptoalkylglycine Residues into Peptides
Previous Article in Special Issue
Current Opinion on Usage of L-Carnitine in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis
Open AccessReview

Effects of l-Carnitine in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Review of Clinical Studies

by Michele Malaguarnera 1,2 and Omar Cauli 2,3,*
1
Research Center “The Great Senescence”, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Frailty and Cognitive Impairment Group (FROG), University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cesare Indiveri and Lara Console
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4262; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234262
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
Carnitine is an amino acid derivative, which plays several important roles in human physiology, in the central nervous system, and for mitochondrial metabolism, in particular. Altered carnitine metabolic routes have been associated with a subgroup of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and could add to the pathophysiology associated with these disorders. We review the current evidence about the clinical effects of carnitine administration in ASD in both non-syndromic forms and ASD associated with genetic disorders. Two randomized clinical trials and one open-label prospective trial suggest that carnitine administration could be useful for treating symptoms in non-syndromic ASD. The effect of carnitine administration in ASD associated with genetic disorders is not conclusive because of a lack of clinical trials and objectives in ASD evaluation, but beneficial effects have also been reported for other comorbid disorders, such as intellectual disability and muscular strength. Side effects observed with a dose of 200 mg/kg/day consisted of gastro-intestinal symptoms and a strong, heavy skin odor. Doses of about 50–100 mg/kg/day are generally well tolerated. Further clinical trials with the identification of the subgroup of ASD patients that would benefit from carnitine administration are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorder; vitamin; metabolism; nutritional supplementation; genetic disorders neurodevelopmental disorder; vitamin; metabolism; nutritional supplementation; genetic disorders
MDPI and ACS Style

Malaguarnera, M.; Cauli, O. Effects of l-Carnitine in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Review of Clinical Studies. Molecules 2019, 24, 4262.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop