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Open AccessReview

Nanoparticle Delivery Systems in the Treatment of Diabetes Complications

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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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CEB—Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de São João, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200–319 Porto, Portugal
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Tiradentes Institute, University of Tiradentes (Unit) and Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, Aracaju-SE 49010-390, Brazil
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Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (LNMED), Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, Aracaju 49010-390, Brazil
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Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, FRC Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, ul. Arbuzov, Kazan 420088, Russia
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Department of Organic Chemistry, Kazan State Technological University, ul. Karla Marksa 68, Kazan 420015, Russia
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Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB-UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Department of Biology and Environment, University of Trás-os Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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CREA-Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina, 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
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Department of Pharmacy, University of Napoli Federico II, Via D. Montesano, 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raffaele Capasso
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4209; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234209
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties and Activity of Molecules of Nutritional Interest)
Diabetes mellitus, an incurable metabolic disease, is characterized by changes in the homeostasis of blood sugar levels, being the subcutaneous injection of insulin the first line treatment. This administration route is however associated with limited patient’s compliance, due to the risk of pain, discomfort and local infection. Nanoparticles have been proposed as insulin carriers to make possible the administration of the peptide via friendlier pathways without the need of injection, i.e., via oral or nasal routes. Nanoparticles stand for particles in the nanometer range that can be obtained from different materials (e.g., polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, lipid) and are commonly used with the aim to improve the physicochemical stability of the loaded drug and thereby its bioavailability. This review discusses the use of different types of nanoparticles (e.g., polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, niosomes, micelles, nanoemulsions and also drug nanosuspensions) for improved delivery of different oral hypoglycemic agents in comparison to conventional therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; insulin; nanoparticles; drug delivery systems; oral hypoglycemic agents diabetes mellitus; insulin; nanoparticles; drug delivery systems; oral hypoglycemic agents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Souto, E.B.; Souto, S.B.; Campos, J.R.; Severino, P.; Pashirova, T.N.; Zakharova, L.Y.; Silva, A.M.; Durazzo, A.; Lucarini, M.; Izzo, A.A.; Santini, A. Nanoparticle Delivery Systems in the Treatment of Diabetes Complications. Molecules 2019, 24, 4209.

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