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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Biocide Potentiation Using Cinnamic Phytochemicals and Derivatives

LEPABE, Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3NB, UK
CIQUP, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3918;
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 26 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Control)
Surface disinfection is of utmost importance in the prevention of bacterial infections. This study aims to assess the ability of ten phytochemicals and related derivatives as potentiators of two commonly used biocides—cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and lactic acid (LA). LA in combination with cinnamic, hydrocinnamic, α-methylcinnamic, and α-fluorocinnamic acids had a factional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ≤ 1 for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Several phytochemicals/derivatives in combination with biocides improved the biocidal efficacy against early sessile bacteria. The most effective combination was LA with allyl cinnamate (2.98 ± 0.76 log CFU·cm−2 reduction) against E. coli. The combination with CTAB was successful for most phytochemicals/derivatives with a maximum bactericidal efficacy against sessile E. coli when combined with allyl cinnamate (2.20 ± 0.07 log CFU·cm−2 reduction) and for S. aureus when combined with α-methylcinnamic acid (1.68 ± 0.30 log CFU·cm−2 reduction). This study highlights the potential of phytochemicals and their derivatives to be used in biocide formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocide; disinfection; phytochemicals; potentiation; sessile cells biocide; disinfection; phytochemicals; potentiation; sessile cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Malheiro, J.F.; Maillard, J.-Y.; Borges, F.; Simões, M. Biocide Potentiation Using Cinnamic Phytochemicals and Derivatives. Molecules 2019, 24, 3918.

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