Next Article in Journal
Improving Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Impact Performance of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminated Composite by Using Thermoplastic Fibers
Next Article in Special Issue
New Functional Ingredients Based on Microencapsulation of Aqueous Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts Derived from Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Validation of a Virtual Gelatin Model Using Molecular Modeling Computational Tools
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inhibitory Effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract on Linoleic Acid Hydroperoxide-induced Lung Mitochondrial Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activities
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Nanocrystallization of Anthocyanins Extracted from Two Types of Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties on Its Stability and Antioxidant Activity

1
Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Development and Breeding in Horticultural Plants, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
2
College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
3
College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
4
Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Apopka, FL 32703, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: María Pilar Almajano and Michael H. Gordon
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3366; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183366
Received: 23 August 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 16 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants Chemistry and Applications)
Red-fleshed apple (Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana (Dieck) Langenf) has attracted more and more attention due to its enriched anthocyanins and high antioxidant activity. In this study we extracted total anthocyanins and phenols from two types of red-fleshed apples—Xinjing No.4 (XJ4) and Red Laiyang (RL)—to study the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins after encapsulation onto Corn Starch Nanoparticles (CSNPs). The results indicated the anthocyanins and total phenol levels of XJ4 were 2.96 and 2.25 times higher than those of RL respectively. The anthocyanin concentration and loading time had a significant effect on CSNPs encapsulation, and XJ4 anthocyanins always showed significantly higher loading capacity than RL. After encapsulation, the morphology of RL-CSNPs and XJ4-CSNPs was still spherical with a smooth surface as CSNPs, but the particle size increased compared to CSNPs especially for RL-CSNPs. Different stress treatments including UV light, pH, temperature, and salinity suggested that XJ4-CSNPs exhibited consistently higher stability than RL-CSNPs. A significantly enhanced free radical scavenging rate under stress conditions was observed, and XJ4-CSNPs had stronger antioxidant activity than RL-CSNPs. Furthermore, XJ4-CSNPs exhibited a slower released rate than RL-CSNPs in simulated gastric (pH 2.0) and intestinal (pH 7.0) environments. Our research suggests that nanocrystallization of anthocyanins is an effective method to keep the anthocyanin ingredients intact and active while maintaining a slow release rate. Compared to RL, encapsulation of XJ4 anthocyanins has more advantages, which might be caused by the significant differences in the metabolites of XJ4. These findings give an insight into understanding the role of nanocrystallization using CSNPs in enhancing the antioxidant ability of anthocyanins from different types of red-fleshed apples, and provide theoretical foundations for red-fleshed apple anthocyanin application. View Full-Text
Keywords: red-flesh apple; anthocyanins; corn starch nanoparticles; antioxidant activity red-flesh apple; anthocyanins; corn starch nanoparticles; antioxidant activity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Zhao, P.; Huo, H.; Zhang, Y. Effect of Nanocrystallization of Anthocyanins Extracted from Two Types of Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties on Its Stability and Antioxidant Activity. Molecules 2019, 24, 3366.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop