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Article

Study of Methionine Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Steatosis in Mice Using Endogenous Fluorescence Spectroscopy

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Laboratorio de Biofotónica, ESIME Zac, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de Mexico 07738, Mexico
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Laboratorio de Proteómica, Dirección de Investigación, Hospital General de Mexico “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, Ciudad de Mexico 06720, Mexico
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Laboratorio de Hígado, Páncreas y Motilidad, Unidad de Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico/Hospital General de Mexico “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, Ciudad de Mexico 06720, Mexico
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Laboratorio de Espectroscopia, UPIIH, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad del Conocimiento y la Cultura, San Agustín Tlaxiaca 42162, Mexico
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Cleta Croce
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173150
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 29 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autofluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a highly prevalent condition worldwide that increases the risk to develop liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, it is imperative to develop novel diagnostic tools that together with liver biopsy help to differentiate mild and advanced degrees of steatosis. Ex-vivo liver samples were collected from mice fed a methionine-choline deficient diet for two or eight weeks, and from a control group. The degree of hepatic steatosis was histologically evaluated, and fat content was assessed by Oil-Red O staining. On the other hand, fluorescence spectroscopy was used for the assessment of the steatosis progression. Fluorescence spectra were recorded at excitation wavelengths of 330, 365, 385, 405, and 415 nm by establishing surface contact of the fiber optic probe with the liver specimens. A multi-variate statistical approach based on principal component analysis followed by quadratic discriminant analysis was applied to spectral data to obtain classifiers able to distinguish mild and moderate stages of steatosis at the different excitation wavelengths. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were computed to compare classifier’s performances for each one of the five excitation wavelengths and steatosis stages. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were calculated from the corresponding ROC curves using the Youden index. Intensity in the endogenous fluorescence spectra at the given wavelengths progressively increased according to the time of exposure to diet. The area under the curve of the spectra was able to discriminate control liver samples from those with steatosis and differentiate among the time of exposure to the diet for most of the used excitation wavelengths. High specificities and sensitivities were obtained for every case; however, fluorescence spectra obtained by exciting with 405 nm yielded the best results distinguishing between the mentioned classes with a total classification error of 1.5% and optimal sensitivities and specificities better than 98.6% and 99.3%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy; liver steatosis; multi-variate analysis endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy; liver steatosis; multi-variate analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Valor, A.; Arista Romeu, E.J.; Escobedo, G.; Campos-Espinosa, A.; Romero-Bello, I.I.; Moreno-González, J.; Fabila Bustos, D.A.; Stolik, S.; de la Rosa Vázquez, J.M.; Guzmán, C. Study of Methionine Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Steatosis in Mice Using Endogenous Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Molecules 2019, 24, 3150. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173150

AMA Style

Valor A, Arista Romeu EJ, Escobedo G, Campos-Espinosa A, Romero-Bello II, Moreno-González J, Fabila Bustos DA, Stolik S, de la Rosa Vázquez JM, Guzmán C. Study of Methionine Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Steatosis in Mice Using Endogenous Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Molecules. 2019; 24(17):3150. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valor, Alma, Eduardo J. Arista Romeu, Galileo Escobedo, Adriana Campos-Espinosa, Ivette I. Romero-Bello, Javier Moreno-González, Diego A. Fabila Bustos, Suren Stolik, Jose M. de la Rosa Vázquez, and Carolina Guzmán. 2019. "Study of Methionine Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Steatosis in Mice Using Endogenous Fluorescence Spectroscopy" Molecules 24, no. 17: 3150. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173150

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