Next Article in Journal
Monitoring Silane Sol-Gel Kinetics with In-Situ Optical Turbidity Scanning and Dynamic Light Scattering
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis of Ultrastable Gold Nanoparticles as a New Drug Delivery System
Open AccessReview

Curcumin: Biological, Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical, and Analytical Aspects

USDA-ARS, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2930;
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
PDF [969 KB, uploaded 13 August 2019]


Turmeric is a curry spice that originated from India, which has attracted great interest in recent decades because it contains bioactive curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin). Curcumin (1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione), a lipophilic polyphenol may work as an anticancer, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging agent as suggested by several in vitro, in vivo studies and clinical trials. However, poor aqueous solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic profiles limit curcumin’s therapeutic usage. To address these issues, several curcumin formulations have been developed. However, suboptimal sample preparation and analysis methodologies often hamper the accurate evaluation of bioactivities and their clinical efficacy. This review summarizes recent research on biological, pharmaceutical, and analytical aspects of the curcumin. Various formulation techniques and corresponding clinical trials and in vivo outcomes are discussed. A detailed comparison of different sample preparation (ultrasonic, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave, reflux) and analytical (FT-IR, FT-NIR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR, HPTLC, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS) methodologies used for the extraction and quantification of curcuminoids in different matrices, is presented. Application of optimal sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and detection methodologies will significantly improve the assessment of different formulations and biological activities of curcuminoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: curcumin; biological activity; formulations; sample preparation; analytical methods curcumin; biological activity; formulations; sample preparation; analytical methods

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kotha, R.R.; Luthria, D.L. Curcumin: Biological, Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical, and Analytical Aspects. Molecules 2019, 24, 2930.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top