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Biological Characterization and Inhibition of Streptococcus pyogenes ZUH1 Causing Chronic Cystitis by Crocus sativus Methanol Extract, Bee Honey Alone or in Combination with Antibiotics: An In Vitro Study

1
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2
Department of Science, King Khalid Military Academy, P.O. Box 22140, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgia Oliviero and Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162903
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecules for Biotechnologies)
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Abstract

Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) ZUH1 was isolated and characterized using morphological, cultural and biochemical methods. The results showed that the marker genes (namely spyCEP, ssa, sic, sdaB and speG) indicating group A streptococci (GAS) were detected in the S. pyogenes genome. The results showed that the S. pyogenes strain was inhibited by Crocus sativus methanol extract (CSME), bee honey (BH) and catfish glycoprotein (CFG). The inhibitory activity of these natural agents were compared with standard antibiotics such as Ceftazidime (30 μg/mL), Cefoperazone (75 μg/mL), Cefoxitin (30 μg/mL) and Imipenem (10 μg/mL). There was a synergistic effect between certain antibiotics and CSME. GC-MS and IR analysis of CSME showed different cyclic ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols and acids. The main compounds were tetradecanoic acid, safranal and isophorone. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of S. pyogenes cells treated with CSME showed signs of an irregular wrinkled outer surface, fragmentation, adhesion and aggregation of damaged bacterial cells or cellular debris. The marker genes (spyCEP, ssa, sic, sdaB and speG) could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool for GAS. CSME, BH and CFG showed distinctive anti-streptococcal activity either alone or in combinations with antibiotics; their action on S. pyogenes cells was studied by TEM. There was a synergistic effect between antibiotics and Crocus sativus, bee honey, and glycoprotein against S. pyogenes ZUH1. The action of natural agents on the pathogenic cells was shown using TEM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Group A streptococci (GAS); S. pyogenes ZUH1; virulence factors; Crocus sativus; CSME; GC-MS; IR analysis; transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Group A streptococci (GAS); S. pyogenes ZUH1; virulence factors; Crocus sativus; CSME; GC-MS; IR analysis; transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
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Abdel-Shafi, S.; Al-Mohammadi, A.-R.; Hamdi, S.; Moustafa, A.H.; Enan, G. Biological Characterization and Inhibition of Streptococcus pyogenes ZUH1 Causing Chronic Cystitis by Crocus sativus Methanol Extract, Bee Honey Alone or in Combination with Antibiotics: An In Vitro Study. Molecules 2019, 24, 2903.

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