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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Chitosan Derivatives on the Compaction and Tension Generation of the Fibroblast-populated Collagen Matrix

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Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Education and Research (CIBER), College of Mathematics and Science, University of Central Oklahoma, 100 N. University Drive, Edmond, OK 73034, USA
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Department of Biology, College of Mathematics and Science, University of Central Oklahoma, 100 N. University Drive, Edmond, OK 73034, USA
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Department of Engineering and Physics, College of Mathematics and Science, University of Central Oklahoma, 100 N. University Drive, Edmond, OK 73034, USA
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Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Mathematics and Science, University of Central Oklahoma, 100 N. University Drive, Edmond, OK 73034, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jyh-Ping Chen
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152713
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 21 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
Fibrotic diseases, such as Dupuytren’s contracture (DC), involve excess scar tissue formation. The differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is a significant mechanism in DC, as it generates tissue contraction in areas without wound openings, leading to the deposition of scar tissue, and eventually flexing one or more fingers in a restrictive fashion. Additionally, DC has a high recurrence rate. Previously, we showed that N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC), an immunostimulant, inhibited myofibroblast differentiation in a DC fibroblast culture. Our goal of this study was to expand our previous study to include other DC and normal cell lines and other chitosan derivatives (GC and single-walled carbon nanotube-conjugated GC) to determine the specific mechanism of inhibition. Derivative-incorporated and vehicle control (water) anchored fibroblast-populated collagen matrices (aFPCM) were used to monitor compaction (anchored matrix height reduction) using microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for six days. Fibroblasts were unable to compact chitosan derivative aFPCM to the same extent as vehicle control aFPCM in repeated experiments. Similarly, chitosan derivative aFPCM contracted less than control aFPCM when released from anchorage. Proliferative myofibroblasts were identified by the presence of alpha smooth muscle actin via myofibroblast proliferative assay. In all tested conditions, a small percentage of myofibroblasts and proliferative cells were present. However, when aFPCM were treated with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), all tested samples demonstrated increased myofibroblasts, proliferation, compaction, and contraction. Although compaction and contraction were reduced, there was sufficient tension present in the chitosan derivative aFPCM to allow exogenous stimulation of the myofibroblast phenotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC); myofibroblast; collagen matrix contraction; optical coherence tomography; Dupuytren’s Contracture; fibrosis chitosan; N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC); myofibroblast; collagen matrix contraction; optical coherence tomography; Dupuytren’s Contracture; fibrosis
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Doan, K.T.; Kshetri, P.; Attamakulsri, N.; Newsome, D.R.; Zhou, F.; Murray, C.K.; Chen, W.R.; Xu, G.; Vaughan, M.B. The Effect of Chitosan Derivatives on the Compaction and Tension Generation of the Fibroblast-populated Collagen Matrix. Molecules 2019, 24, 2713.

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