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Application of Chitosan in Bone and Dental Engineering

1
INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research), UMR 1260, Regenerative Nanomedicine (RNM), FMTS, 11 Rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France
2
Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire de Strasbourg, 8 Rue Sainte-Elisabeth, 67000 Strasbourg, France
3
Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Pôle de Médecine et de Chirurgie Bucco-Dentaires, 67000 Strasbourg, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jyh-Ping Chen
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 3009; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24163009
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
Chitosan is a deacetylated polysaccharide from chitin, the natural biopolymer primarily found in shells of marine crustaceans and fungi cell walls. Upon deacetylation, the protonation of free amino groups of the d-glucosamine residues of chitosan turns it into a polycation, which can easily interact with DNA, proteins, lipids, or negatively charged synthetic polymers. This positive-charged characteristic of chitosan not only increases its solubility, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, but also directly contributes to the muco-adhesion, hemostasis, and antimicrobial properties of chitosan. Combined with its low-cost and economic nature, chitosan has been extensively studied and widely used in biopharmaceutical and biomedical applications for several decades. In this review, we summarize the current chitosan-based applications for bone and dental engineering. Combining chitosan-based scaffolds with other nature or synthetic polymers and biomaterials induces their mechanical properties and bioactivities, as well as promoting osteogenesis. Incorporating the bioactive molecules into these biocomposite scaffolds accelerates new bone regeneration and enhances neovascularization in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; bone engineering; regeneration; scaffold; periodontitis; dental pulp chitosan; bone engineering; regeneration; scaffold; periodontitis; dental pulp
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Aguilar, A.; Zein, N.; Harmouch, E.; Hafdi, B.; Bornert, F.; Offner, D.; Clauss, F.; Fioretti, F.; Huck, O.; Benkirane-Jessel, N.; Hua, G. Application of Chitosan in Bone and Dental Engineering. Molecules 2019, 24, 3009.

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