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Endlicheria bracteolata (Meisn.) Essential Oil as a Weapon Against Leishmania amazonensis: In Vitro Assay

1
Laboratório de Imunomodulação e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21045-900, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Plantas Medicinais e Derivados (PN1), Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro 21041-250, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Cromatografia, Departamento de Química, UFAM, Manaus 69080-900, Amazonas, Brazil
4
Núcleo de Microscopia Eletrônica, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo 01246-000, Brazil
5
Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, São Luís 65055-310, Maranhão, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142525
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
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Abstract

The difficulties encountered and the numerous side effects present in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis have encouraged the research for new compounds that can complement or replace existing treatment. The growing scientific interest in the study of plants, which are already used in folk remedies, has led our group to test Endlicheria bracteolata essential oil against Leishmania amazonensis. Several species of the Lauraceae family, or their compounds, have relevant antiprotozoal activities Therefore, the biological potential on L. amazonensis forms from the essential oil of Endlicheria bracteolata leaves was verified for the first time in that work. The antileishmanial activity was evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, and cytotoxicity were performed with J774.G8, which were incubated with different concentrations of E. bracteolata essential oil. Transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry were performed with E. bracteolata essential oil IC50. Promastigote forms showed E. bracteolata essential oil IC50 of 7.945 ± 1.285 µg/mL (24 h) and 6.186 ± 1.226 µg/mL (48 h), while for intracellular amastigote forms it was 3.546 ± 1.184 µg/mL (24 h). The CC50 was 15.14 ± 0.090 µg/mL showing that E. bracteolata essential oil is less toxic to macrophages than to parasites. Transmission electron microscopy showed that E. bracteolata essential oil treatment is capable of inducing mitochondrial damage to promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms, while flow cytometry showed ΔѰm disruption in treated parasites. These results could bring about new possibilities to develop products based on E. bracteolata essential oil to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for people who cannot receive the conventional therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil; leishmanicidal activity; cytotoxicity; transmission electron microscopy essential oil; leishmanicidal activity; cytotoxicity; transmission electron microscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rottini, M.M.; Amaral, A.C.F.; Ferreira, J.L.P.; Oliveira, E.S.C.; Silva, J.R.A.; Taniwaki, N.N.; dos Santos, A.R.; Almeida-Souza, F.; de Souza, C.S.F.; Calabrese, K.S. Endlicheria bracteolata (Meisn.) Essential Oil as a Weapon Against Leishmania amazonensis: In Vitro Assay. Molecules 2019, 24, 2525.

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