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Biological Effects of EF24, a Curcumin Derivative, Alone or Combined with Mitotane in Adrenocortical Tumor Cell Lines

1
Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padova, via Ospedale 105, 35128 Padova, Italy
2
AIROB, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca Oncologica di Base, 3520128 Padova, Italy
3
Venetian Institute for Molecular Science and Experimental Technologies, VIMSET. Pz Milani 4, 30010 Campolongo Maggiore, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editors: Erika Ferrari and Carol Imbriano
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122202
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin)
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Abstract

Background: Curcumin has numerous properties and is used in many preclinical conditions, including cancer. It has low bioavailability, while its derivative EF24 shows enhanced solubility. However, its effects have never been explored in adrenocortical tumor cell models. The efficacy of EF24 alone or combined with mitotane (reference drug for adrenocortical cancer) was evaluated in two adrenocortical tumor cell lines, SW13 and H295R. Method and Results: EF24 reduced cell viability with an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 6.5 ± 2.4 μM and 4.9 ± 2.8 μM for SW13 and H295R cells, respectively. Combination index (EF24 associated with mitotane) suggested an additivity effect in both cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increase in subG0/G1 phase, while motility assay showed a decrease in migratory cell capacity, and similarly, clonogenic assay indicated that EF24 could reduce colony numbers. Furthermore, Wnt/β-catenin, NF-κB, MAPK, and PI3k/Akt pathways were modulated by Western blot analysis when treating cells with EF24 alone or combined with mitotane. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels increased in both cell lines. Conclusion: This work analyzed EF24 in adrenocortical tumor cell lines for the first time. These results suggest that EF24 could potentially impact on adrenocortical tumors, laying the foundation for further research in animal models. View Full-Text
Keywords: EF24; curcumin; adrenocortical; preclinical cell model EF24; curcumin; adrenocortical; preclinical cell model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bertazza, L.; Barollo, S.; Mari, M.E.; Faccio, I.; Zorzan, M.; Redaelli, M.; Rubin, B.; Armanini, D.; Mian, C.; Pezzani, R. Biological Effects of EF24, a Curcumin Derivative, Alone or Combined with Mitotane in Adrenocortical Tumor Cell Lines. Molecules 2019, 24, 2202.

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