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Physicochemical Parameters of Real Wastewater Originating from a Plant Protection Products Factory and Modification of the QuEChERS Method for Determination of Captan

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Rzeszow, Pigonia 1, 35-310 Rzeszow, Poland
2
Chemiqua Company, Skawinska 25/1, 31-066 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122203
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was the modification and application of the QuEChERS method for the preparation and purification of samples in order to determine the level of captan in real wastewater originating from a plant protection products factory which was characterized by a significant content of organic substances [Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) = 856 ± 128 mg O2/L and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) = 62 ± 9 mg/L]. The optimization of the method consisted of the selection of solvents used for the extraction of captan from wastewater and also sorbents used to purify the extracts by the dispersion of a solid phase extraction technique (dSPE). Two steps were used: extraction and clean-up. In the extraction step, acetonitrile was replaced by anacetonitrile:acetone mixture. In the clean-up step by the dSPE, five sorbents were tested: Florisil®, aluminum oxide (Al2O3), zirconium oxide (ZrO2), silicon oxide (SiO2) and PSA (primary and secondary amine). Concentrations of captan in wastewater extracts were determined by gas chromatography (GC) combined with electron capture detection (μECD). The best recovery parameters and precision of the method were obtained for samples purified using ZrO2 (recovery 98% and precision expressed as relative standard deviation RSD 8%) and Florisil® (recovery 96%, RSD 9%). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for determination of captan in diluted extract of wastewater were 0.003 and 0.01 mg/L, respectively. Matrix effects were in the range of −69% to −44% for samples purified by ZrO2 and Florisil®, respectively. The modified and optimized method was applied for fast and simple determination of captan levels in real industrial wastewater samples, in which the concentration of captan in diluted extract was determined to be 4.0 ± 0.3 mg/L. View Full-Text
Keywords: QuEChERS; captan; pesticides; industrial wastewater; gas chromatography QuEChERS; captan; pesticides; industrial wastewater; gas chromatography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Szpyrka, E.; Thomas, M.; Podbielska, M. Physicochemical Parameters of Real Wastewater Originating from a Plant Protection Products Factory and Modification of the QuEChERS Method for Determination of Captan. Molecules 2019, 24, 2203.

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