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Open AccessArticle

Kynurenic Acid and Its Analogs Are Beneficial Physiologic Attenuators in Bdelloid Rotifers

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Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Kalvaria sgt. 57, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary
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MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, Semmelweis u. 6, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary
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Department of Neurology, Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Semmelweis u. 6, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary
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Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, Eötvös u. 6, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
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MTA-SZTE Stereochemistry Research Group Eötvös u. 6, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
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Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Medical University of Bialystok, ul.Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2171; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112171
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
The in vivo investigation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its analogs is one of the recent exciting topics in pharmacology. In the current study we assessed the biological effects of these molecules on bdelloid rotifers (Philodina acuticornis and Adineta vaga) by monitoring changes in their survival and phenotypical characteristics. In addition to longitudinal (slowly changing) markers (survival, number of rotifers alive and body size index), some dynamic (quickly responding) ones (cellular reduction capacity and mastax contraction frequency) were measured as well. KYNA and its analogs increased longevity, reproduction and growth, whereas reduction capacity and energy-dependent muscular activity decreased conversely. We found that spermidine, a calorie restriction mimetic, exerted similar changes in the applied micro-invertebrates. This characterized systemic profile evoked by the above-mentioned compounds was named beneficial physiologic attenuation. In reference experiments, using a stimulator (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and a toxin (sodium azide), all parameters changed in the same direction (positively or negatively, respectively), as expected. The currently described adaptive phenomenon in bdelloid rotifers may provide holistic perspectives in translational research. View Full-Text
Keywords: kynurenic acid; metabolism; physiology; bdelloid rotifer; survival; mastax kynurenic acid; metabolism; physiology; bdelloid rotifer; survival; mastax
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MDPI and ACS Style

Datki, Z.; Galik-Olah, Z.; Bohar, Z.; Zadori, D.; Fulop, F.; Szatmari, I.; Galik, B.; Kalman, J.; Vecsei, L. Kynurenic Acid and Its Analogs Are Beneficial Physiologic Attenuators in Bdelloid Rotifers. Molecules 2019, 24, 2171.

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