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Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and HPLC Determination of the Major Components of Verbena carolina (Verbenaceae)

1
Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F. 04510, Mexico
2
Jardín Etnobotánico. Centro INAH, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62440, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Microbiología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica del Sur, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Xochitepec, Morelos 62790, Mexico
4
Unidad de Investigación en Sistemática Vegetal y Suelo, FES Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Batalla 5 de mayo y P. Elías calles s/n. Col. Ejército de Oriente, Iztapalapa 09230, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Taken in part from the MSc Thesis of G. Lara.
Academic Editor: Francesco Epifano
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101970
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity)
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Abstract

Verbena carolina L. (Verbenaceae) is used as a decoction in Mexican folk medicine with applications against digestive problems and for dermatological infections. The present work firstly reported HPLC analysis, as well as the free radical scavenging capacity of the extracts and isolated compounds. Antimicrobial analyses of these substances against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi and the fungi Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were also tested, as well as the acute oral toxicity in mice of aqueous extracts. Major secondary metabolites in V. carolina extracts were isolated by conventional phytochemical methods which consisted of three terpenoids ((1), (3) and (4)) and four phenolic compounds ((2), (4)–(6)). Their contents were determined by HPLC in six different samples from different locations. The results indicated that ursolic acid (1), hispidulin (2), verbenaline (3), hastatoside (4), verbascoside (5), hispidulin 7-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (6) and pectolinaringenin-7-O-α-d-glucuronopyranoside (7) were the main constituents and ranged from 0.17 to 3.37 mg/g of dried plant, with verbascoside being the most abundant and with a significant antioxidant activity in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hispidulin was the only active compound against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. The aqueous extract showed no significant toxicity (LD50: > 5000 mg/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of the chemical characterization of V. carolina and also of the activity of its constituents towards reactive oxygen species and dermatophytes, and its safety for consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: Verbena carolina; antioxidant capacity; HPLC determination; medicinal plants Verbena carolina; antioxidant capacity; HPLC determination; medicinal plants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lara-Issasi, G.; Salgado, C.; Pedraza-Chaverri, J.; Medina-Campos, O.N.; Morales, A.; Águila, M.A.; Avilés, M.; Rivero-Cruz, B.E.; Navarro, V.; Ríos-Gómez, R.; Aguilar, M.I. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and HPLC Determination of the Major Components of Verbena carolina (Verbenaceae). Molecules 2019, 24, 1970.

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