Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and HPLC Determination of the Major Components of Verbena carolina (Verbenaceae)†
AbstractVerbena carolina L. (Verbenaceae) is used as a decoction in Mexican folk medicine with applications against digestive problems and for dermatological infections. The present work firstly reported HPLC analysis, as well as the free radical scavenging capacity of the extracts and isolated compounds. Antimicrobial analyses of these substances against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi and the fungi Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were also tested, as well as the acute oral toxicity in mice of aqueous extracts. Major secondary metabolites in V. carolina extracts were isolated by conventional phytochemical methods which consisted of three terpenoids ((1), (3) and (4)) and four phenolic compounds ((2), (4)–(6)). Their contents were determined by HPLC in six different samples from different locations. The results indicated that ursolic acid (1), hispidulin (2), verbenaline (3), hastatoside (4), verbascoside (5), hispidulin 7-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (6) and pectolinaringenin-7-O-α-d-glucuronopyranoside (7) were the main constituents and ranged from 0.17 to 3.37 mg/g of dried plant, with verbascoside being the most abundant and with a significant antioxidant activity in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hispidulin was the only active compound against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. The aqueous extract showed no significant toxicity (LD50: > 5000 mg/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of the chemical characterization of V. carolina and also of the activity of its constituents towards reactive oxygen species and dermatophytes, and its safety for consumption. View Full-Text
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Lara-Issasi, G.; Salgado, C.; Pedraza-Chaverri, J.; Medina-Campos, O.N.; Morales, A.; Águila, M.A.; Avilés, M.; Rivero-Cruz, B.E.; Navarro, V.; Ríos-Gómez, R.; Aguilar, M.I. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and HPLC Determination of the Major Components of Verbena carolina (Verbenaceae). Molecules 2019, 24, 1970.
Lara-Issasi G, Salgado C, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Medina-Campos ON, Morales A, Águila MA, Avilés M, Rivero-Cruz BE, Navarro V, Ríos-Gómez R, Aguilar MI. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and HPLC Determination of the Major Components of Verbena carolina (Verbenaceae). Molecules. 2019; 24(10):1970.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lara-Issasi, Gonzalo; Salgado, Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Medina-Campos, Omar N.; Morales, Agustín; Águila, Marco A.; Avilés, Margarita; Rivero-Cruz, Blanca E.; Navarro, Víctor; Ríos-Gómez, Ramiro; Aguilar, María I. 2019. "Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and HPLC Determination of the Major Components of Verbena carolina (Verbenaceae)." Molecules 24, no. 10: 1970.
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