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A Portable Setup for the Voltammetric Determination of Total Mercury in Fish with Solid and Nanostructured Gold Electrodes

1
Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
3
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta (IZSPLV), 10100 Torino, Italy
4
Department of Agricultural, Food, Animal and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
5
National Institute of Metrological Research, Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology Division, 10135 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Scarponi, Silvia Illuminati, Anna Annibaldi and Cristina Truzzi
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101910
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract

A simple procedure for field fish sample pretreatment was developed. This treatment in combination with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SW-ASV) with solid gold electrodes (SGE) and gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs-GCE) was applied for the determination of total mercury content. A certified reference material (CRM, Tuna Fish BCR 463), ten freeze-dried samples of canned tuna and two fresh fish samples were analysed both with a bench-top voltammetric analyser after microwave digestion and with a portable potentiostat after mild eating using a small commercial food warmer. The results obtained by the two SW-ASV approaches and by a Direct Mercury Analyser (DMA), the official method for mercury determination, were in very good agreement. In particular, (i) the results obtained with in field procedure are consistent with those obtained with the conventional microwave digestion; (ii) the presence of gold nanoparticles on the active electrode surface permits an improvement of the analytical performance in comparison to the SGE: the Limit of Quantification (LOQ) for mercury in fish-matrix was 0.1 μg L−1 (Hg cell concentration), corresponding to 0.06 mg kg−1 wet fish, which is a performance comparable to that of DMA. The pretreatment proposed in this study is very easy and applicable to fresh fish; in combination with a portable potentiostat, it proved to be an interesting procedure for on-site mercury determination. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury; gold electrodes; direct mercury analyser; on-site analysis; anodic stripping voltammetry mercury; gold electrodes; direct mercury analyser; on-site analysis; anodic stripping voltammetry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ruo Redda, A.; Abollino, O.; Malandrino, M.; Squadrone, S.; Abete, M.C.; Berto, S.; Toniolo, R.; Durbiano, F.; Giacomino, A. A Portable Setup for the Voltammetric Determination of Total Mercury in Fish with Solid and Nanostructured Gold Electrodes. Molecules 2019, 24, 1910.

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