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Open AccessArticle

Pollution and Health Risk Assessments of Potentially Toxic Elements in Soil and Sediment Samples in a Petrochemical Industry and Surrounding Area

1
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Centre of Excellence in Environmental Chemistry and Engineering–ICTM, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11158 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Innovation Center, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Scarponi, Silvia Illuminati, Anna Annibaldi and Cristina Truzzi
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112139
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
The pollution state and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soil and sediment samples of the petrochemical industry and its surrounding area are evaluated in this study. The pseudo-total contents of Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, As, Hg, and Se were measured by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) in analyzed samples. Instead of determining total content, we performed aqua regia of the samples. The silicate matrix remained, and the quantities of elements that are within the silicate matrix do not represent an environmental danger. The soils from the chlor–alkali plant are highly polluted by Hg (the enrichment factor values were above 6000), and by Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the sediment samples from the wastewater channel are polluted with Cr, Cd, and Hg. The measured element contents are used for calculating health risk criteria for a composite worker (a worker who is exposed, long-term, during the work day) and for residential people. Hg is the element that mainly contributes to non-carcinogenic risks within the petrochemical area. The highest value of total carcinogenic risk obtained in the sediment sample from the wastewater channel, and the metal that mostly contributes is Cr. The areas closest to the petrochemical industry have higher values of health risk criteria parameters and pollution indices. The areas that are located further to the north and south from the petrochemical industry are less burdened with the analyzed elements, which is significant because the closest city and village are situated in those directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: potentially toxic elements; petrochemical industry-workers; non-industrial area-residential people; pollution indices; health risk assessment potentially toxic elements; petrochemical industry-workers; non-industrial area-residential people; pollution indices; health risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Relić, D.; Sakan, S.; Anđelković, I.; Popović, A.; Đorđević, D. Pollution and Health Risk Assessments of Potentially Toxic Elements in Soil and Sediment Samples in a Petrochemical Industry and Surrounding Area. Molecules 2019, 24, 2139.

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