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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092365

Combination of Sensory, Chromatographic, and Chemometrics Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds for the Discrimination of Authentic and Unauthentic Harumanis Mangoes

1
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, Jengka 26400, Pahang, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
3
East Coast Environmental Research Institute, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu 21300, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Abstract

This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of three mango varieties (Harumanis, Tong Dam and Susu) for the discrimination of authentic Harumanis from other mangoes. The VOCs of these mangoes were extracted and analysed nondestructively using Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Prior to the analytical method, two simple sensory analyses were carried out to assess the ability of the consumers to differentiate between the Harumanis and Tong Dam mangoes as well as their preferences towards these mangoes. On the other hand, chemometrics techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and discriminant analysis (DA), were used to visualise grouping tendencies of the volatile compounds detected. These techniques were successful in identifying the grouping tendencies of the mango samples according to the presence of their respective volatile compounds, thus enabling the identification of the groups of substances responsible for the discrimination between the authentic and unauthentic Harumanis mangoes. In addition, three ocimene compounds, namely beta-ocimene, trans beta-ocimene, and allo-ocimene, can be considered as chemical markers of the Harumanis mango, as these compounds exist in all Harumanis mango, regardless the different sources of the mangoes obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: Harumanis; Mangifera indica L.; VOCs; sensory analysis; chromatographic; chemometrics; authentication Harumanis; Mangifera indica L.; VOCs; sensory analysis; chromatographic; chemometrics; authentication
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zakaria, S.R.; Saim, N.; Osman, R.; Abdul Haiyee, Z.; Juahir, H. Combination of Sensory, Chromatographic, and Chemometrics Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds for the Discrimination of Authentic and Unauthentic Harumanis Mangoes. Molecules 2018, 23, 2365.

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