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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092280

Application of Organo-Magadiites for the Removal of Eosin Dye from Aqueous Solutions: Thermal Treatment and Regeneration

1
Community College, Taibah University-Al-Mahd Branch, Al-Mahd 42112, Saudi Arabia
2
Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833, Singapore
3
Department of Chemistry, Taibah University, P.O. Box 30002, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah 41147, Saudi Arabia
4
Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, B. P. 1796 (Atlas), Fès 30003, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry)
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Abstract

Na-magadiite exchanged with cetyl-trimethylammonium cations provided organophilic silicate materials that allowed for the effective removal of the acidic dye “eosin”. The organic cations were intercalated into the interlayer spacing of the layered silicate via an exchange reaction between the organic cations from their bromide salt and the solid Na-magadiite at room temperature. Different techniques were used to characterize the effect of the initial concentration of the surfactant on the structure of the organo-magadiites. The C, H, and N analysis indicated that a maximum of organic cations of 0.97 mmol/g was achieved and was accompanied by an expansion of the basal spacing of 3.08 nm, with a tilted angle of 59° to the silicate layers. The conformation of the organic surfactants was probed using solid-state 13C, finding mainly the trans conformation similar to that of the starting cetyl trimethylammonium bromide salt (C16TMABr). Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of the resulting organo-magadiites. The intercalated surfactants started to decompose at 200 °C, with a mass loss percentage of 8% to 25%, depending on the initial loading of the surfactant, and was accompanied by a decrease of the basal spacing from 3.16 nm to 2.51 nm, as deduced from the in situ X-ray diffraction studies. At temperatures below 220 °C, an expansion of the basal spacing from 3.15 to 3.34 nm occurred. These materials were used as a removal agent for the anionic dye eosin. The maximum amount of the dye removed was related to the organic cation content and to the initial concentration of eosin, with an improvement from 2.5 mg/g to 80.65 mg/g. This value decreased when the organo-magadiite was preheated at temperatures above 200 °C. The regeneration tests indicated that an 85% removal efficiency was maintained after six cycles of use for the organo-magadiite using Ci of 200 mg/L. View Full-Text
Keywords: magadiite; organo-layered silicate; removal; eosin; thermal stability; regeneration magadiite; organo-layered silicate; removal; eosin; thermal stability; regeneration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kooli, F.; Liu, Y.; Abboudi, M.; Rakass, S.; Hassani, H.O.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Al-Faze, R. Application of Organo-Magadiites for the Removal of Eosin Dye from Aqueous Solutions: Thermal Treatment and Regeneration. Molecules 2018, 23, 2280.

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