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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2219;

Optimization of Flavonoids Extraction Process in Panax notoginseng Stem Leaf and a Study of Antioxidant Activity and Its Effects on Mouse Melanoma B16 Cells

1,2,3,4,* and 1,2,3,4,*
College of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
Yunnan Key Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax Notoginseng, Kunming 650500, China
Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax Notoginseng Resources, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming 650500, China
University Based Provincial Key Laboratory of Screening and Utilization of Targeted Drugs, Kunming 650500, China
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori and Andrei Mocan
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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The Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng) stem leaf is rich in flavonoids. However, because of a lack of research on the flavonoid extraction process and functional development of P. notoginseng stem leaf, these parts are discarded as agricultural wastes. Therefore, in this study, we intend to optimize the extraction process and develop the skin-whitening functions of P. notoginseng stem leaf extracts. The extraction process of the stem and leaf of P. notoginseng flavonoid (SLPF) is optimized based on the Box–Behnken design (BBD) and the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum extraction conditions of the SLPF are as follows: the extraction time, the ethanol concentration, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) content and the liquid material ratio (v/w, which are 52 min, 48.7%, 1.9%, and 20:1, respectively. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the average total SLPF content is 2.10%. The antioxidant activity and anti-deposition of melanin of mouse B16 cells of P. notoginseng stem leaf extracts are studied. The results indicate that the EC50 values of reducing activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities, the superoxide anion removal ability, and the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) free radical removal ability are 7.212, 2.893, 2.949, and 0.855 mg/mL, respectively. The extracts IC50 values of the tyrosinase and melanin synthesis are 0.045 and 0.046 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the optimal processing technology for the SLPF obtained in this study not only increases its utilization rate, but also decreases material costs. The extracts from the P. notoginseng stem leaf may be developed as food or beauty products. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; flavonoids; mouse melanoma B16 cells; Panax notoginseng; surfactant antioxidant; flavonoids; mouse melanoma B16 cells; Panax notoginseng; surfactant

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Dai, C.-Y.; Liu, P.-F.; Liao, P.-R.; Qu, Y.; Wang, C.-X.; Yang, Y.; Cui, X.-M. Optimization of Flavonoids Extraction Process in Panax notoginseng Stem Leaf and a Study of Antioxidant Activity and Its Effects on Mouse Melanoma B16 Cells. Molecules 2018, 23, 2219.

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