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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081916

Spectroscopic Characterization of Natural Melanin from a Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus Strain and Comparison with Melanin Enzymatically Synthesized by Tyrosinase and Laccase

1
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
CSGI (Consorzio per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase), 50019 Florence, Italy
3
Biology of Microorganisms and Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Oran 1 Ahmed ben Bella, BP1524, Oran El Mnaouer, 31000 Oran, Algeria
4
Algeria and Faculty of Sciences, Natural and Life Sciences Department, Mohamed Boudiaf University, M’sila, Algeria
5
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence and Clinical Microbiology and Virology Unit, Careggi University Hospital, 50134 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecules for Biotechnologies)
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Abstract

An actinobacteria strain was isolated from Algerian Sahara soil and assigned to Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus Pridham et al. 1958 species. This strain was selected for its ability to produce melanin exopigments in liquid and solid media. Melanin synthesis was associated with tyrosinase activity and the enzyme from this strain was isolated and biochemically characterized. Synthetic melanin was then enzymatically produced using the S. cyaneofuscatus Pridham et al. 1958 tyrosinase. As this enzyme showed a higher diphenolase activity, a synthetic melanin from the enzymic oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) was obtained by the use of a Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd laccase for comparison. The natural and synthetic pigments were physico-chemically characterized by the use of ultraviolet (UV)-Visible, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. All the melanin samples displayed a stable free radical when analyzed by X-band EPR spectroscopy. Once the samples were recorded at Q-band EPR, a copolymer derived from a mixture of different constituents was evident in the natural melanin. All radical species were analyzed and discussed. The use of water-soluble melanin naturally produced by S. cyaneofuscatus Pridham et al. 1958 represents a new biotechnological alternative to commercial insoluble pigments. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. cyaneofuscatus Pridham et al. 1958 melanin; melanogenesis enzymes; melanin spectral characterization; radical species; multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) S. cyaneofuscatus Pridham et al. 1958 melanin; melanogenesis enzymes; melanin spectral characterization; radical species; multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Al Khatib, M.; Harir, M.; Costa, J.; Baratto, M.C.; Schiavo, I.; Trabalzini, L.; Pollini, S.; Rossolini, G.M.; Basosi, R.; Pogni, R. Spectroscopic Characterization of Natural Melanin from a Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus Strain and Comparison with Melanin Enzymatically Synthesized by Tyrosinase and Laccase. Molecules 2018, 23, 1916.

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