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Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071638

Aflatoxins and A. flavus Reduction in Loaf Bread through the Use of Natural Ingredients

1
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
2
School of AgriculturalSciences and Veterinary Medicine, PontifíciaUniversidade Católica do Paraná, BR 376 Km 14, 83010-500 São José dos Pinhais, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract

In this study, the antifungal activity of yellow mustard (YMF) and oriental mustard (OMF) meal extracts against 14 strains of fungi was tested on a solid medium. The results obtained with the YMF were next confirmed in liquid medium determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicide concentration (MFC). Finally, the use of YMF as a natural preservative to extend the useful life of bread was evaluated. Breads with different concentrations of YMF (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/kg) were prepared and contaminated with Aspergillus flavus ISPA 8111 and Penicillium nordicum CECT 2320. For 10 days the formation of mycelium was observed, and after that the fungal growth and the mycotoxins production was determined. The results obtained with the YMF were compared with breads treated with the commercial additive sodium propionate (E-281). The results showed a significant reduction of the fungal population using 6 g/kg and 8 g/kg of YMF in bread contaminated with A. flavus and with P. nordicum and an extensions of the breads shelf life of 7 and 5 days, respectively, in comparison with the control experiment. A reduction of 78% of AFB1 was observed using 6 g/kg of YMF while no AFB1 production was detected employing 8 g/kg of YMF in bread preparation. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; shelf life; mustard flour; mycotoxin reduction; LC-MS/MS aflatoxins; shelf life; mustard flour; mycotoxin reduction; LC-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Quiles, J.M.; Torrijos, R.; Luciano, F.B.; Mañes, J.; Meca, G. Aflatoxins and A. flavus Reduction in Loaf Bread through the Use of Natural Ingredients. Molecules 2018, 23, 1638.

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