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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Chlortetracycline Residues, Antimicrobial Activity and Presence of Resistance Genes in Droppings of Experimentally Treated Broiler Chickens

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Chile, Av. Santa Rosa, La Pintana, Santiago 11735, Chile
2
Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Chile, Av. Santa Rosa, La Pintana, Santiago 11735, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Patricia Regal and Carlos M. Franco
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061264
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Veterinary Drug Analysis: Multiresidue and Omic Approaches)
Tetracyclines are important antimicrobial drugs for poultry farming that are actively excreted via feces and urine. Droppings are one of the main components in broiler bedding, which is commonly used as an organic fertilizer. Therefore, bedding becomes an unintended carrier of antimicrobial residues into the environment and may pose a highly significant threat to public health. For this depletion study, 60 broiler chickens were treated with 20% chlortetracycline (CTC) under therapeutic conditions. Concentrations of CTC and 4-epi-CTC were then determined in their droppings. Additionally, this work also aimed to detect the antimicrobial activity of these droppings and the phenotypic susceptibility to tetracycline in E. coli isolates, as well as the presence of tet(A), tet(B), and tet(G) resistance genes. CTC and 4-epi-CTC concentrations that were found ranged from 179.5 to 665.8 µg/kg. Based on these data, the depletion time for chicken droppings was calculated and set at 69 days. All samples presented antimicrobial activity, and a resistance to tetracyclines was found in bacterial strains that were isolated from these samples. Resistance genes tet(A) and tet(B) were also found in these samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetracycline residues; depletion; poultry droppings; antimicrobial activity; antimicrobial resistance genes tetracycline residues; depletion; poultry droppings; antimicrobial activity; antimicrobial resistance genes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cornejo, J.; Yevenes, K.; Avello, C.; Pokrant, E.; Maddaleno, A.; Martin, B.S.; Lapierre, L. Determination of Chlortetracycline Residues, Antimicrobial Activity and Presence of Resistance Genes in Droppings of Experimentally Treated Broiler Chickens. Molecules 2018, 23, 1264. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061264

AMA Style

Cornejo J, Yevenes K, Avello C, Pokrant E, Maddaleno A, Martin BS, Lapierre L. Determination of Chlortetracycline Residues, Antimicrobial Activity and Presence of Resistance Genes in Droppings of Experimentally Treated Broiler Chickens. Molecules. 2018; 23(6):1264. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061264

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cornejo, Javiera; Yevenes, Karina; Avello, Constanza; Pokrant, Ekaterina; Maddaleno, Aldo; Martin, Betty S.; Lapierre, Lisette. 2018. "Determination of Chlortetracycline Residues, Antimicrobial Activity and Presence of Resistance Genes in Droppings of Experimentally Treated Broiler Chickens" Molecules 23, no. 6: 1264. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061264

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