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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051059

Green Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Sterculia nobilis Fruit Waste and Analysis of Phenolic Profile

1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
2
Zhongshan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhongshan 528403, China
3
South China Sea Bioresource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María Pilar Almajano and Michael H. Gordon
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants Chemistry and Applications)
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Abstract

The waste of Sterculia nobilis fruit was massively produced during food processing, which contains lots of natural antioxidants. In this study, antioxidants in the Sterculia nobilis fruit waste were extracted using the green microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of five independent variables (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, temperature, and microwave power) on extraction efficiency were explored, and three major factors (ethanol concentration, extraction time, and temperature) showing great influences were chosen to study their interactions by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: 40.96% ethanol concentration, 30 mL/g solvent/material ratio, 37.37 min extraction time at 66.76 °C, and 700 W microwave power. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value obtained in optimal conditions was in agreement with the predicted value. Besides, MAE improved the extraction efficiency compared with maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods. Additionally, the phenolic profile in the extract was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS, and eight kinds of phenolic compounds were identified and quantified, including epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid. This study could contribute to the value-added utilization of the waste from Sterculia nobilis fruit, and the extract could be developed as food additive or functional food. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sterculia nobilis; fruit; waste; antioxidant; phenolic compounds; microwave-assisted extraction Sterculia nobilis; fruit; waste; antioxidant; phenolic compounds; microwave-assisted extraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, J.-J.; Li, Y.; Lin, S.-J.; Li, H.-B. Green Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Sterculia nobilis Fruit Waste and Analysis of Phenolic Profile. Molecules 2018, 23, 1059.

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