Our previous reports showed that crude extract prepared with 50% ethanol (ethanol crude extract, ECE) from Mongolian oak cups possessed excellent in vitro antioxidant capacities as well as inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein glycation caused by its enrichment in phenolics, including mainly ellagic acid, kaempferol and their derivatives. Nevertheless, few in vivo studies on antidiabetic activities of these phenolics were conducted. The present study investigated hypoglycemic effects with normal and diabetic rats being administrated orally without or with ECE at 200 and 800 mg/kg for 15 days. In normal rats, no significant differences were exhibited after ECE administration in body weight, fasting blood glucose level, levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and AST in serum, organ indexes, and levels of GSH and MDA in organs. In diabetic rats, the fasting blood glucose level, indexes of heart and liver, and levels of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and MDA in heart tissue were significantly decreased. Moreover, HDL levels in serum and SOD activities in the four organs of diabetic rats were significantly improved after ECE administration at 800 mg/kg. Thus, in addition to inhibiting α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein glycation reported previously, oak cups might contain novel dietary phytonutrients in preventing abnormal changes in blood glucose and lipid profile and attenuating oxidant stress in vivo. The results also implied that it is ellagic acid, kaempferol and their derivatives enriched in ECE that might play vital roles in managing type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes.
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