Next Article in Journal
Spiroketones and a Biphenyl Analog from Stems and Leaves of Larrea nitida and Their Inhibitory Activity against IL-6 Production
Next Article in Special Issue
Melatonin: A Molecule for Reducing Breast Cancer Risk
Previous Article in Journal
Advances in the Development of PET Ligands Targeting Histone Deacetylases for the Assessment of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Melatonin Secretion and Metabolism Exponents in Patients with Ulcerative and Lymphocytic Colitis
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020301

Pineal Calcification, Melatonin Production, Aging, Associated Health Consequences and Rejuvenation of the Pineal Gland

Department of Cell Systems & Anatomy, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2072 KB, uploaded 31 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The pineal gland is a unique organ that synthesizes melatonin as the signaling molecule of natural photoperiodic environment and as a potent neuronal protective antioxidant. An intact and functional pineal gland is necessary for preserving optimal human health. Unfortunately, this gland has the highest calcification rate among all organs and tissues of the human body. Pineal calcification jeopardizes melatonin’s synthetic capacity and is associated with a variety of neuronal diseases. In the current review, we summarized the potential mechanisms of how this process may occur under pathological conditions or during aging. We hypothesized that pineal calcification is an active process and resembles in some respects of bone formation. The mesenchymal stem cells and melatonin participate in this process. Finally, we suggest that preservation of pineal health can be achieved by retarding its premature calcification or even rejuvenating the calcified gland. View Full-Text
Keywords: pineal gland; calcification; melatonin; aging; neurodegenerative diseases; rejuvenation pineal gland; calcification; melatonin; aging; neurodegenerative diseases; rejuvenation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, D.X.; Xu, B.; Zhou, X.; Reiter, R.J. Pineal Calcification, Melatonin Production, Aging, Associated Health Consequences and Rejuvenation of the Pineal Gland. Molecules 2018, 23, 301.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top