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Open AccessArticle

Evolution of Volatile Compounds and Spoilage Bacteria in Smoked Bacon during Refrigeration Using an E-Nose and GC-MS Combined with Partial Least Squares Regression

by Xinfu Li 1,2, Jiancai Zhu 1, Cong Li 1,2, Hua Ye 1, Zhouping Wang 1, Xiang Wu 2 and Baocai Xu 1,2,3,*
1
School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Yurun Group, Nanjing 211806, China
3
School of Food Science and Biology Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3286; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123286
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
The changes in the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biogenic amines (BAs) in smoked bacon during 45-day refrigerated storage is investigated using solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. In total, 56 VOCs and 6 BAs were identified and quantified. The possible pathways leading to their formation are analyzed and considered as the potential signs of microbial activity, especially by specific spoilage microorganisms (SSOs). Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus, which levels increased markedly with the extension of storage time, were recognized as SSOs. An electronic nose (e-nose) was employed to determine the changes in concentration of the odor components per sample present within half an hour. Partial least squares regression was then carried out to analyze the correlation between SSO growth, metabolite concentration, BA accumulation, and e-nose response. The results show that ten VOCs (ethanol, 2-furanmethanol, 1-hexanol, 1-propanol, phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, acetic acid, 3-ethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, furfural, and ethyl hexanoate) and three BAs (putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine) can be associated with the growth of SSOs. Thus, they can be adopted as potential indicators to evaluate and monitor the quality of the bacon and develop appropriate detection methods. E-noses can used to recognize odors and diagnose quality of bacon. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoked bacon; volatile compounds; SPME-GC-MS; electronic nose; biogenic amines; partial least squares regression smoked bacon; volatile compounds; SPME-GC-MS; electronic nose; biogenic amines; partial least squares regression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, C.; Ye, H.; Wang, Z.; Wu, X.; Xu, B. Evolution of Volatile Compounds and Spoilage Bacteria in Smoked Bacon during Refrigeration Using an E-Nose and GC-MS Combined with Partial Least Squares Regression. Molecules 2018, 23, 3286.

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