Next Article in Journal
Synthesis of Novel ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoid Derivatives Effective for Highly Aggressive Tumor Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Rapid Characterization and Identification of Chemical Constituents in Gentiana radix before and after Wine-Processed by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn
Previous Article in Journal
Tailor-Made Deep Eutectic Solvents for Simultaneous Extraction of Five Aromatic Acids from Ginkgo biloba Leaves
Previous Article in Special Issue
Intracellular Accumulation of Linezolid and Florfenicol in OptrA-Producing Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3215;

Determination of Tranquilizers in Swine Urine by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Makoto Tsunoda
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Sample Analysis by Liquid Chromatography)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1814 KB, uploaded 13 December 2018]   |  


A rapid, reliable, and sensitive method was developed for the determination of ten tranquilizers in swine urine. Sample preparation was based on solid-phase extraction, which combined isolation of the compounds and sample cleanup in a single step. Separation was performed on a reversed phase C18 column by gradient elution with a chromatographic run time of seven minutes, consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was applied for data acquisition. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification and good linearity was obtained with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99. The average recoveries of fortified samples at concentrations between 0.05 and 10 µg/L ranged from 85% to 106% with interday relative standard deviations of less than 13% in all cases. The limits of detection and limits of quantification obtained for tranquilizers in the urine were in the ranges of 0.03–0.1 µg/L and 0.05–0.25 µg/L, respectively. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing real samples; diazepam was detected at concentrations between 0.3 and 0.6 μg/L. View Full-Text
Keywords: tranquilizers; UHPLC; MS/MS; swine urine tranquilizers; UHPLC; MS/MS; swine urine

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Ke, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, Y.; Ye, D.; Hu, X.; Zhou, L.; Xia, X. Determination of Tranquilizers in Swine Urine by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Molecules 2018, 23, 3215.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top