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Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3214; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123214

Tailor-Made Deep Eutectic Solvents for Simultaneous Extraction of Five Aromatic Acids from Ginkgo biloba Leaves

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
2
Co-Innovation Center for the Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
3
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract

Ginkgo biloba leaves have various health benefits due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyprenyl acetates, flavonoids, and terpene trilactones. However, there is little literature reported on the aromatic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves. In this work, five aromatic acids including shikimic acid (SA), 6-hydroxykynurenic acid (6-HKA), protocatechuic acid (PA), gallic acid (GAA), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) were simultaneously extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves by employing the green deep eutectic solvents (DESs). A DES tailor-made from xylitol, glycolic acid and 1,5-pentanedioic acid at a molar ratio of 1:3:1 with 50% (w/w) water addition, named as NGG50, gave higher extraction yields for the five aromatic acids. Main factors affecting the extraction process were further optimized. The highest extraction yields of SA, GAA, 6-HKA, PA, and PHBA were 94.15 ± 0.96 mg/g, 332.69 ± 5.19 μg/g, 25.90 ± 0.61 μg/g, 429.89 ± 11.47 μg/g and 67.94 ± 0.37 μg/g, respectively. The NGG50-based extraction process developed here was a successful attempt of simultaneously extracting five aromatic acids from Ginkgo biloba leaves for the first time, which could provide a new exploitation direction of Ginkgo biloba leaves.
Keywords: deep eutectic solvents; Ginkgo biloba leaves; simultaneous extraction; shikimic acids; 6-hydroxykynurenic acid deep eutectic solvents; Ginkgo biloba leaves; simultaneous extraction; shikimic acids; 6-hydroxykynurenic acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cao, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, W.; Cao, F.; Ma, G.; Su, E. Tailor-Made Deep Eutectic Solvents for Simultaneous Extraction of Five Aromatic Acids from Ginkgo biloba Leaves. Molecules 2018, 23, 3214.

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