Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Lonicera caerulea L. Berry Polyphenols in a Mouse Model of Fatty Liver Induced by High Fat Diet
Core Research Program 1515, Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
The State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3213; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123213
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Plant Compounds for Sustainable Health)
Polyphenols from the Lonicera caerulea L. berry have shown protective effects on experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in our previous studies. As endotoxins from gut bacteria are considered to be the major trigger of inflammation in NAFLD, this study aims to clarify the regulatory effects of L. caerulea L. berry polyphenols (LCBP) on gut microbiota in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model. C57BL/6N mice were fed with a normal diet, HFD, or HFD containing 0.5–1% of LCBP for 45 days. The results revealed that supplementation with LCBP decreased significantly the levels of IL-2, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α in serum, as well as endotoxin levels in both serum and liver in HFD-fed mice. Fecal microbiota characterization by high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that a HFD increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and LCBP reduced this ratio by increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and another two undefined bacterial genera belonging to the order of Bacteroidales and family of Rikenellaceae, and also by decreasing the relative abundance of six bacterial genera belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, including Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira. These data demonstrated that LCBP potentially attenuated inflammation in NAFLD through modulation of gut microbiota, especially the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes.