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Open AccessArticle

Application of Direct Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction (DI-SPME) for Understanding Biological Changes of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) During Mating Procedures

School of Veterinary and Life Science, Murdoch University, 90 South St., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
College of Agriculture, Wasit University, Wasit 120, Iraq
Plant Quarantine Technology Centre, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA), Gimcheon 39660, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both Hasan AL-Khshemawee and Xin Du contributed equally as first authors.
Academic Editor: Constantinos K. Zacharis
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2951;
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid-Phase Microextraction)
Samples from three different mating stages (before, during and after mating) of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were used in this experiment. Samples obtained from whole insects were subjected to extraction with the two mixtures of solvents (acetonitrile/water (A) and methanol/acetonitrile/water (B)) and a comparative study of the extractions using the different solvents was performed. Direct immersion-solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) was employed, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) for the collection, separation and identification of compounds. The method was validated by testing its sensitivity, linearity and reproducibility. The main compounds identified in the three different mating stages were ethyl glycolate, α-farnesene, decanoic acid octyl ester, 2,6,10,15-tetramethylheptadecane, 11-tricosene, 9,12-(Z,Z)-octadecadienoic acid, methyl stearate, 9-(Z)-tricosene, 9,11-didehydro-lumisterol acetate; 1,54-dibromotetrapentacontane, 9-(Z)-hexadecenoic acid hexadecyl ester, 9-(E)-octadecenoic acid and 9-(Z)-hexadecenoic acid octadecyl ester. The novel findings indicated that compound compositions were not significantly different before and during mating. However, new chemical compounds were generated after mating, such as 1-iodododecane, 9-(Z)-tricosene and 11,13-dimethyl-12-tetradecen-1-acetate which were extracted with both (A) and (B) and dodecanoic acid, (Z)-oleic acid, octadecanoic acid and hentriacontane which were extracted with (A) and ethyl glycolate, 9-hexadecenoic acid hexadecyl ester, palmitoleic acid and 9-(E)-octadecenoic acid, which were extracted with solvent (B). This study has demonstrated that DI-SPME is useful in quantitative insect metabolomics by determining changes in the metabolic compounds in response to mating periods. DI-SPME chemical extraction technology might offer analysis of metabolites that could potentially enhance our understanding on the evolution of the medfly. View Full-Text
Keywords: DI-SPME; GC-MS; Mediterranean fruit fly; extraction solvent; metabolites DI-SPME; GC-MS; Mediterranean fruit fly; extraction solvent; metabolites
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Al-Khshemawee, H.; Du, X.; Agarwal, M.; Yang, J.O.; Ren, Y.L. Application of Direct Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction (DI-SPME) for Understanding Biological Changes of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) During Mating Procedures. Molecules 2018, 23, 2951.

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