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Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2934; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112934

Ethanolic Extract of Folium Sennae Mediates the Glucose Uptake of L6 Cells by GLUT4 and Ca2+

1
Institute for Medical Biology & Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory for Protection and Application of Special Plants in the Wuling Area of China, College of Life Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China
2
National Demonstration Center for Experimental Ethnopharmacology Education, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China
3
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, 182 Min-Zu Road, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pinarosa Avato
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Drug Discovery)
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Abstract

In today’s world, diabetes mellitus (DM) is on the rise, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by insulin resistance. T2DM has high morbidity, and therapies with natural products have attracted much attention in the recent past. In this paper, we aimed to study the hypoglycemic effect and the mechanism of an ethanolic extract of Folium Sennae (FSE) on L6 cells. The glucose uptake of L6 cells was investigated using a glucose assay kit. We studied glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation levels using western blot analysis. GLUT4 trafficking and intracellular Ca2+ levels were monitored by laser confocal microscopy in L6 cells stably expressing IRAP-mOrange. GLUT4 fusion with plasma membrane (PM) was observed by myc-GLUT4-mOrange. FSE stimulated glucose uptake; GLUT4 expression and translocation; PM fusion; intracellular Ca2+ elevation; and the phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt, and PKC in L6 cells. GLUT4 translocation was weakened by the AMPK inhibitor compound C, PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin, PKC inhibitor Gö6983, G protein inhibitor PTX/Gallein, and PLC inhibitor U73122. Similarly, in addition to PTX/Gallein and U73122, the IP3R inhibitor 2-APB and a 0 mM Ca2+-EGTA solution partially inhibited the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. BAPTA-AM had a significant inhibitory effect on FSE-mediated GLUT4 activities. In summary, FSE regulates GLUT4 expression and translocation by activating the AMPK, PI3K/Akt, and G protein–PLC–PKC pathways. FSE causes increasing Ca2+ concentration to complete the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with PM, allowing glucose uptake. Therefore, FSE may be a potential drug for improving T2DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: FSE; T2DM; GLUT4; Ca2+; L6 cell FSE; T2DM; GLUT4; Ca2+; L6 cell
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Zhao, P.; Ming, Q.; Qiu, J.; Tian, D.; Liu, J.; Shen, J.; Liu, Q.-H.; Yang, X. Ethanolic Extract of Folium Sennae Mediates the Glucose Uptake of L6 Cells by GLUT4 and Ca2+. Molecules 2018, 23, 2934.

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