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Insight into the Influence of Cultivar Type, Cultivation Year, and Site on the Lignans and Related Phenolic Profiles, and the Health-Promoting Antioxidant Potential of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Seeds

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC) EA1207 INRA USC1328, Plant LIGNANS Team, Université d’Orléans, 28000 Chartres, France
COSM’ACTIFS, Bioactifs et Cosmétiques, CNRS GDR3711, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2, France
Institut de Chimie Organique et Analytique (ICOA) UMR7311, Université d’Orléans-CNRS, 45067 Orléans CEDEX 2, France
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447 Sri-Ayuthaya Road, Rajathevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Le CNAM, Ecole Sciences Industrielles et Technologies de l’Information (SITI), Chimie Alimentation Santé Environnement Risque (CASER), 75141 Paris Cedex 3, France
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad, Pakistan
Biologie des Plantes et Innovation (BIOPI) EA 3900, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 80000 Amiens, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered both as first authors.
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2636;
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignans)
PDF [1561 KB, uploaded 14 October 2018]


Flaxseeds are a functional food representing, by far, the richest natural grain source of lignans, and accumulate substantial amounts of other health beneficial phenolic compounds (i.e., flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids). This specific accumulation pattern is related to their numerous beneficial effects on human health. However, to date, little data is available concerning the relative impact of genetic and geographic parameters on the phytochemical yield and composition. Here, the major influence of the cultivar over geographic parameters on the flaxseed phytochemical accumulation yield and composition is evidenced. The importance of genetic parameters on the lignan accumulation was further confirmed by gene expression analysis monitored by RT-qPCR. The corresponding antioxidant activity of these flaxseed extracts was evaluated, both in vitro, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and iron chelating assays, as well as in vivo, by monitoring the impact of UV-induced oxidative stress on the lipid membrane peroxidation of yeast cells. Our results, both the in vitro and in vivo studies, confirm that flaxseed extracts are an effective protector against oxidative stress. The results point out that secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, caffeic acid glucoside, and p-coumaric acid glucoside are the main contributors to the antioxidant capacity. Considering the health benefits of these compounds, the present study demonstrates that the flaxseed cultivar type could greatly influence the phytochemical intakes and, therefore, the associated biological activities. We recommend that this crucial parameter be considered in epidemiological studies dealing with flaxseeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultivar; environment; flax; flavonol; genetic; hydroxycinnamic acid; lignan; seed cultivar; environment; flax; flavonol; genetic; hydroxycinnamic acid; lignan; seed

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Garros, L.; Drouet, S.; Corbin, C.; Decourtil, C.; Fidel, T.; Lebas de Lacour, J.; Leclerc, E.A.; Renouard, S.; Tungmunnithum, D.; Doussot, J.; Abassi, B.H.; Maunit, B.; Lainé, É.; Fliniaux, O.; Mesnard, F.; Hano, C. Insight into the Influence of Cultivar Type, Cultivation Year, and Site on the Lignans and Related Phenolic Profiles, and the Health-Promoting Antioxidant Potential of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Seeds. Molecules 2018, 23, 2636.

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