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Molecules 2017, 22(6), 910;

Himatanthus drasticus Leaves: Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial, Antibiofilm, Antiproliferative Activities

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Parasitária, Universidade Ceuma, São Luís 65075120, Brazil
Laboratório de Produtos Naturais e Síntese, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74001-970, Brazil
Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís 65065545, Brazil
Instituto Florence de Ensino Superior, São Luís 65020470, Brazil
Correspondence:;; Tel.: +55-98-984-087-71
These two authors contribute equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Daniela Barlocco and Fiorella Meneghetti
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Drug Discovery and Design)
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Plant-derived products have played a fundamental role in the development of new therapeutic agents. This study aimed to analyze antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative potentials of the extract and fractions from leaves of Himatanthus drasticus, a plant from the Apocynaceae family. After harvesting, H. drasticus leaves were macerated and a hydroalcoholic extract (HDHE) and fractions were prepared. Antimicrobial tests, such as agar-diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were carried out against several bacterial species. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae were inhibited by at least one extract or fraction in the agar-diffusion assay (inhibition halos from 12 mm to 30 mm). However, the lowest MIC value was found for HDHE against K. pneumoniae. In addition, HDHE and its fractions were able to inhibit biofilm formation at sub-inhibitory concentrations (780 µg/mL and 1.56 µg/mL). As the best activities were found for HDHE, we selected it for further assays. HDHE was able to increase ciprofloxacin (CIP) activity against K. pneumoniae, displaying synergistic (initial concentration CIP + HDHE: 2 µg/mL + 600 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL + 500 µg/mL) and additive effects (CIP + HDHE: 3 µg/mL + 400 µg/mL). This action seems to be associated with the alteration in bacterial membrane permeability induced by HDHE (as seen by propidium iodide labeling). This extract was non-toxic for red blood cell or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Additionally, it inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation of PBMCs. The following compounds were detected in HDHE using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis: plumieride, plumericin or isoplumericin, rutin, quercetin and derivatives, and chlorogenic acid. Based on these results we suggest that compounds from H. drasticus have antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against K. pneumoniae and display low cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative action in PBMC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. View Full-Text
Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae; inflammation; natural products; medicinal plants Klebsiella pneumoniae; inflammation; natural products; medicinal plants

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Figueiredo, C.S.S.S.; Branco Santos, J.C.; Castro Junior, J.A.A.; Wakui, V.G.; Rodrigues, J.F.S.; Arruda, M.O.; Monteiro, A.S.; Monteiro-Neto, V.; Bomfim, M.R.Q.; Kato, L.; Nascimento da Silva, L.C.; Grisotto, M.A.G. Himatanthus drasticus Leaves: Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial, Antibiofilm, Antiproliferative Activities. Molecules 2017, 22, 910.

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