Health-Promoting Phytochemicals from 11 Mustard Cultivars at Baby Leaf and Mature Stages
Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101749
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
Mustard is a Brassica vegetable that provides a number of phytonutrients. However, the phytonutrient profile of mustard has been relatively limited. We analyzed the glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, carotenoids, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of 11 mustard cultivars grown in a greenhouse at the baby leaf and mature stages. An aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin and its hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate and 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane were the major phytonutrients in the mustard leaves. Carotenoids β-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin were detected. We found phytonutrient concentration and their change with plant growth were cultivar-dependent. The %RDA value for vitamin A calculated using β-carotene content and retinol activity equivalents suggests that mustard cultivars used in this study can be a good source of vitamin A. Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity also varied among cultivars and between physiological stages. Our results suggest that mustard leaves are rich in various phytochemicals and their composition depends on cultivar and the physiological stage. This is the first report on phytochemical composition in various mustard cultivars at different physiological stages.