Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses
AbstractBee venom (BV) is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Nevertheless, the physiochemical properties and functions of each enzyme class and their mechanisms remain unclear. Various pharmacotherapeutic effects of some of the BV enzymes have been reported in several studies. At present, ongoing research aims to characterize each enzyme and elucidate their specific biological roles. This review gathers all the current knowledge on BV enzymes and their specific mechanisms in regulating various immune responses and physiological changes to provide a basis for future therapies for various diseases. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Hossen, M.S.; Shapla, U.M.; Gan, S.H.; Khalil, M.I. Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses. Molecules 2017, 22, 25.
Hossen MS, Shapla UM, Gan SH, Khalil MI. Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses. Molecules. 2017; 22(1):25.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hossen, Md. S.; Shapla, Ummay M.; Gan, Siew H.; Khalil, Md. I. 2017. "Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses." Molecules 22, no. 1: 25.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.