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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1254;

Effect of Phyllanthus amarus Extract on 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Perturbations in Ribonucleotide and Deoxyribonucleotide Pools in HepG2 Cell Line

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau Institute for Applied Research in Medicine and Health, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau SAR, China
Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance (Ministry of Education), China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Quality Standards, Guangxi Institute of Traditional Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanning 530022, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor activities of Phyllanthus amarus (PHA) and its potential of herb–drug interactions with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell viability, ribonucleotides (RNs) and deoxyribonucleotides (dRNs) levels, cell cycle distribution, and expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and ribonucleotide reductase (RR) proteins were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our standardized PHA extract showed toxicity to HepG2 cells at high concentrations after 72 h exposure and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Combined use of 5-FU with PHA resulted in significant decreases in ATP, CTP, GTP, UTP and dTTP levels, while AMP, CMP, GMP and dUMP levels increased significantly compared with use of 5-FU alone. Further, PHA could increase the role of cell cycle arrest at S phase induced by 5-FU. Although PHA alone had no direct impact on TS and RR, PHA could change the levels of RNs and dRNs when combined with 5-FU. This may be due to cell cycle arrest or regulation of key enzyme steps in intracellular RNs and dRNs metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus extract; 5-fluorouracil; ribonucleotides; deoxyribonucleotides Phyllanthus amarus extract; 5-fluorouracil; ribonucleotides; deoxyribonucleotides

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Guo, J.-R.; Chen, Q.-Q.; Lam, C.W.-K.; Wang, C.-Y.; Xu, F.-G.; Liu, B.-M.; Zhang, W. Effect of Phyllanthus amarus Extract on 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Perturbations in Ribonucleotide and Deoxyribonucleotide Pools in HepG2 Cell Line. Molecules 2016, 21, 1254.

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