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Structural Elucidation of a Novel Polysaccharide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Cells and Distributing in Rats by Oral

by Jinlong Chen 1,2,†, Wensheng Pang 2,†, Wentao Shi 2, Bin Yang 2, Yongjun Kan 1, Zhaodong He 1 and Juan Hu 1,2,*
1
The Institute of Drug Research, Fujian Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350003, China
2
The College of Pharmacy, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350122, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Quan-Bin Han, Sunan Wang and Shaoping Nie
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091233
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
The semi-refined polysaccharide of Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a complex polysaccharide that exhibits significantly hypoglycemic activities. A novel homogeneous polysaccharide, named as H-1-2, was isolated from the semi-refined polysaccharide. The mean molecular weight of H-1-2 was 1.4 × 104 Da and it was only composed of d-glucose monosaccharide. Structure elucidation indicated that H-1-2 contains pyranride, and has the characteristics of the α-iso-head configuration, a non-reducing end (T-), 4-, 1,6-, and 1,4,6-connection, in all four ways to connect glucose. H-1-2 was a type of glucan, where chemical combination exists in the main chain between 1→4 linked glucose, and contains a small amount of 1,6-linked glucose, which was in the branched chain. In vitro HepG2, 3T3-L1, and L6 cells were used to assess cellular glucose consumption and cellular glucose uptake by glucose oxidase, and the transport of 2-NBDG fluorescence probe results showed that H-1-2 could clearly increase glucose uptake and utilization in muscle and adipose cells, which is beneficial to screen for in the discovery of anti-diabetes lead compounds. H-1-2 was labeled with radioisotopes (99mTc-pertechnetate). 99mTc-labeled-H-1-2 was performed by SPECT/CT analysis images after oral administration in rats. At 4 h post ingestion, about 50% of the radioactivity was observed in the intestine. No significant radioactivity was found in the heart, liver, and kidney, conjecturing that absorption of 99mTc-labeled H-1-2 might, via intestinal mucosa, be absorbed into systemic circulation. This problem, as to whether the polysaccharide is absorbed orally, will need further examination. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudostellaria heterophylla; a novel polysaccharide; structure; glucose uptake; distribution taken orally Pseudostellaria heterophylla; a novel polysaccharide; structure; glucose uptake; distribution taken orally
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Chen, J.; Pang, W.; Shi, W.; Yang, B.; Kan, Y.; He, Z.; Hu, J. Structural Elucidation of a Novel Polysaccharide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Cells and Distributing in Rats by Oral. Molecules 2016, 21, 1233.

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