Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry
Previous Article in Journal
Dual Behavior of Iodine Species in Condensation of Anilines and Vinyl Ethers Affording 2-Methylquinolines
Article

Extraction Optimization of Polyphenols from Waste Kiwi Fruit Seeds (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

1
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiao Tong University, Xi’an 710061, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070832
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 22 June 2016 / Published: 25 June 2016
Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) seeds, present as a by-product in the food and pharmaceutical industries, remain underutilized. In this study the extraction conditions for the maximum recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) with high DPPH scavenging capacities (DPPHsc) were analyzed for kiwi fruit seed polyphenols (KSP) by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest yield of TPC (53.73 mg GAE/g DW) with 63.25% DPPHsc was found by using an extraction time of 79.65 min with an eluent containing 59.45% acetone at 38.35 °C and a 1:11.52 (w/v) solid/liquid ratio. Compared with butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), a synthetic antioxidant, the extracted KSP showed higher DPPHsc and ferric reducing antioxidant power, but was less efficient than grape seed polyphenols extracted under the same optimum conditions. We also showed that the extracted KSP exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) analysis of the extracted KSP under optimized conditions revealed that the extract was mainly composed of five polyphenolic compounds. Our work showed the development of an optimal extraction process of the KSP, which presented excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, indicating that kiwi fruit seeds may further be utilized as a potential source of natural biological active compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: kiwi fruit seeds; polyphenols; antioxidation; anti-inflammatory kiwi fruit seeds; polyphenols; antioxidation; anti-inflammatory
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, J.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, C.; Cao, W.; Fan, D.; Yang, H. Extraction Optimization of Polyphenols from Waste Kiwi Fruit Seeds (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties. Molecules 2016, 21, 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070832

AMA Style

Deng J, Liu Q, Zhang C, Cao W, Fan D, Yang H. Extraction Optimization of Polyphenols from Waste Kiwi Fruit Seeds (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties. Molecules. 2016; 21(7):832. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070832

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Jianjun, Qingqing Liu, Chao Zhang, Wei Cao, Daidi Fan, and Haixia Yang. 2016. "Extraction Optimization of Polyphenols from Waste Kiwi Fruit Seeds (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties" Molecules 21, no. 7: 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070832

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop